catalysts provide a faster outcome of any chemical reaction.In response to the starting materials of the reaction, the catalyst reacts with two intermediate, after which this compound is subjected to transformation and eventually decomposes into the desired final product of the reaction, as well as changes nepodvergshiysya catalyst.After the decomposition and formation of the desired product over the catalyst reacts with the feedstock to form an increasing amount of starting material.This cycle can be repeated millions of times, and if the catalyst is extracted from the group of reactants, the reaction can last for hundreds of thousands times slower.
catalysts are heterogeneous and homogeneous.Heterogeneous catalysts in a chemical reaction to form a separate phase, which is sepa
rated from the phase boundary separating the starting materials.Homogeneous catalysts, by contrast, are part of the same phase with the initial reagents.
There are organic catalysts that contribute to the fermentation and maturation, they are called enzymes.Without the direct participation of mankind has not been able to get most of the alcoholic beverages, milk products, products from the test, as well as honey and jam.Without the participation of enzymes would be impossible metabolism in living organisms.
Requirements for Substances catalysts
catalysts, which are widely used in industrial production, should have a range of properties needed for the successful completion of the reaction.The catalysts must have high activity, selectivity, heat-resistant and mechanically robust.They should have a long duration of action, easy regeneration, resistance to catalyst poisons, hydrodynamic properties, and low price.
modern application of industrial catalysts
In this high-tech production of catalysts used in the cracking of petroleum, producing aromatic hydrocarbons and high-octane gasoline, the production of pure hydrogen, oxygen and inert gases, ammonia synthesis, the preparation of sulfur and sulfuric acid without any additional costs.Catalysts are also widely used to produce nitric acid, ethylene, phthalic anhydride, methyl and ethyl alcohol and acetaldehyde.The most widely used catalysts - a metallic platinum, vanadium, nickel, chromium, iron, zinc, silver, aluminum and palladium.Also often used certain salts of these metals.