One of the main climate factors - geographical position of the area.It determines the amount of solar energy produced.The greater the angle of the fall to Earth the sun's rays, the warmer climate.In the best position at this point is the equator, and least of all solar energy getting pole of the Earth.For this reason, the equatorial climate is the warmest, and the closer to the poles - the colder.

Another important factor is the proximity of the sea.The water heats and cools more slowly than land, and influencing the adjacent land areas.For a maritime climate, which takes place in the coastal regions, not characterized by large temperature differences between the seasons: winter is quite warm and the summer is not hot and dry.In areas located in the heart of the continent, has a continental climate with cold winters, hot summers.

intermediate position takes cl
imate is temperate continental.The uneven heating of the earth's surface by the sun creates the difference in atmospheric pressure due to which there are constant winds.They also affect the climate.

in the equatorial belt is a region of high pressure, and in the tropics - low.Because of this difference arises trade winds - constant winds, which are directed from the tropics to the equator and are deflected to the west.The trade winds of the Northern Hemisphere originate over land and bring dry air in Africa - and therefore there was the Sahara desert.Southern Hemisphere trade winds originate over the Indian Ocean and bring the eastern coast of Africa and Australia, many rainfall.

from the polar regions of high pressure towards the moderate latitudes blowing constant easterly winds carrying cold air dry.

no less influence on the climate of ocean currents.For example, the warm Gulf Stream has a moderating influence is not the climate of Northern Europe, so the average temperature in Norway is significantly higher than in the North American Labrador, located in the same latitudes.

climate of individual regions, as well as the Earth as a whole remains unchanged.This is due, in particular, with the sun: 4 billion years ago, it has rejected a lot less energy than at present.The temperature at which water can exist in the liquid state is maintained only in the world due to the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide.Solar activity varies periodically.In 1645-1715 gg.It observed its record decline, known as the "Maunder minimum."It caused a general cooling of the entire world, which led to a crop failure and, consequently, famine and social upheaval.

The climate is influenced by anthropogenic factors.It is not just about modern industrial emissions of greenhouse - examples of man-made climate change can be found in the past.For example, since the late 14th century.Europe's climate becomes colder.It was the indirect result of a grand plague: Europe's population has halved as a result of reduced deforestation, the content of oxygen in the atmosphere increased, which led to a cooling.