Tip 1: How to look for the Higgs boson via Collider

Some scientists believe that the July 4, 2012 physicists have opened the gate to the so-called "new physics."It is the symbol for the unknown areas that are beyond the Standard Model, new elementary particles, fields, interactions between them, etc.But before scientists had to find and interrogate the gatekeeper - the infamous Higgs boson.



Large Hadron Collider accelerator consists of a ring (magnetic system) length of 26,659 m., Injection complex, accelerating section, seven detectors for the detection of elementary particles, and a few other insignificant systems.Two of the collider detectors used to search for the Higgs boson: ATLAS and CMS.Homonymous abbriveaturami called them performed in the experiments and collaboration (group) scientists who work on these detectors.They are quite numerous, for example, the CMS collaboration involved about 2.5 thousand. People.

order to detect new particles in collider creating proton-proton collisions, ie,collision beams of protons.Each beam consists of 2
808 clusters, and each of these clots - 100 billion protons.Dispersal in the injection complex, protons "injected" into the ring, where they are accelerated by means of resonators and gain 7 TeV, and then faced in the locations of the detectors.The results of such collision is a cascade of particles with different properties.Before the start of the experiments it was expected that one of them will be a boson, predicted earlier theoretical physicist Peter Higgs.

Higgs boson - the particle is unstable.Emerging, he immediately breaks down, so it is searched from the decay products into other particles: gluons, muons, photons, electrons, etc.The process of disintegration was fixed detectors ATLAS and CMS, and the information is sent to thousands of computers around the world.Previously, scientists assumed that the channels (option decay) can be several, and with varying degrees of success made research on each of these areas.

Eventually July 4 2012 g at a public seminar at CERN physics provided the results of its work.Scientists from the CMS collaboration announced that analyzed data on five channels: the decay of the Higgs boson to Z-bosons, gamma photons, electrons, W-bosons and quarks.Total statistical significance of the discovery of the Higgs boson was 4.9 sigma (a term from statistics, so-called "standard deviation") for the mass of 125.3 GeV.

Then, scientists from the ATLAS collaboration announced boson decay data on two channels: two photon and four-lepton.Total statistical significance for the mass of 126 GeV amounted to 5 sigma, iethe likelihood that the cause of the observed effect is a statistical fluctuation (random deviation) is equal to 1 to 3.5 million. This result is very likely to announce the opening of a new particle - the Higgs boson.


Tip 2: How to find the Higgs boson

July 4, 2012 the specialists of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) said that they had finally found the Higgs boson.The existence of a hypothetical particle was predicted by some fifty years ago, but to get the practical support of this hypothesis became possible only after the launch of the Large Hadron Collider.
How to find the Higgs boson



In the mid 60-ies of the last century, a little-known professor of the University of Edinburgh Peter Higgs predicted the existence of a special particle, which is the foundation of the modern model of the universe.It is for this reason that Higgs boson, dubbed the "God particle."Experimentally confirm the existence of particles helped LHC - Large Hadron Collider, which is a grand setting for the study of elementary particles.

Higgs suggested that there is a medium or a "aggravating" field, flying through which elementary particles begin to interact with it.The stronger the interaction, the slower the particle breaks through the environment, and the greater mass of this particle has.In the circles of physicists the idea: through a powerful accelerator "pinch off" part of the field, arranging a kind of "big bang opposite."

According to the laws of quantum mechanics, the predicted Higgs "aggravating" field consists of quanta, is both a wave and a particle.Quanta hypothetical Higgs field received in the name of science bosons.

idea of ​​the experiment was that a powerful blow to break a pair consisting of a proton and the Higgs boson.This would see the released proton turned without specific protection in a photon of light and another particle - sought Higgs boson.

experience began in the early 80-ies on the first collider, built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research.Then find the Higgs boson could not, but it received many encouraging interim results.Subsequently, work continued on the Large Hadron Collider built in the area of ​​Lake Geneva.New experiments lasted for more than eleven years and enabled to adjust the parameters of the study, as well as to determine the measurement range.

few years of waiting and considerable costs of a research project brought results.In an official press release by CERN July 4, 2012 he was made a cautious statement that revealed clear signs of the existence of new particles that fit into the framework of extended Higgs theory.Although there is a small probability of error, most physicists believe that the search for the Higgs boson been successfully completed.


Sources:
  • «In search of a piece of God, or the hunt for the Higgs boson," J. Semple, 2012.
Sources:
  • Search for the Higgs boson at the LHC

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