object of study Biology
Like any other science, biology has its object of study is its hallmark - it explores the living systems, both existing in the world now and extinct in other geological epochs.By definition scientists all living systems on earth are characterized by metabolism, the ability to self-regulation and self-reproduction.Biology - is a complex of a few specialized science, which is the object of study of the Earth's wildlife from plants to humans, in all its manifold forms and manifestations.
Depending on the subject matter, biology is divided into separate areas.For example, a botanist studies the structure and properties of plants, zoology - the science of animal anatomy investigates the internal structure of the body, embryology - natal development animal or human from
the moment of conception to birth, and general biology - laws of the organization and development of living systems in general, and so on.d.
Today found described and systematized a huge number of species of animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms.However, this process is far from complete.Scientists are constantly discovering new types of living organisms.Some of the more specialized branch of biology - physiology, parasitology, immunology, microbiology - linked to medicine and healthcare and are their scientific basis.
methods of scientific knowledge
Like any science, biology uses certain methods of investigation.There are several basic universal methods of cognition, is used in all sciences:
- surveillance - methods for facilitating the collection of information by means of visual or instrument;
- experiment - a method of giving the opportunity to test the observation and speculation arose with the help of experiments;
- modeling - a method that creates a model that behaves as an object of study.
By universal method also includes the formulation and solution of the problem, hypotheses, and the emergence of the theory.The problem - the problem, leading to the generation of new scientific knowledge, and requires data collection, systematization and analysis.The hypothesis - the assumption, checked by experiment.Critical analysis of the hypotheses that arise in the course of the study received the facts and establish cause-effect relationships of events and phenomena, allows us to formulate laws.By definition, a theory - is a generalization of the main provisions pertaining to specific scientific knowledge.Getting new facts may contribute to the development or disprove the theory.
various sciences are also using private methods of learning, for example, biochemical, allowing to identify the phenomena occurring in the human body in terms of chemistry, and paleontology, revealing the relationship between fossil organisms living in different geological epochs.Some of the universal and particular methods used and biology.