nucleons and quarks

called nucleons tiny particles that make up the nucleus of an atom.These include protons and neutrons.The proton - the nucleus of the hydrogen atom, which has a positive charge.The neutron has zero charge.The masses of these two particles are about the same (different by 0.14%).In general, the atom is electrically neutral.This is ensured by the negative charge of the electrons orbiting the nucleus.Nucleons participate in the strong interaction.

Until recently, scientists believed that the nucleons - indivisible particles.However, this theory has collapsed after the discovery of the quark model of the nucleus and carrying out experiments to confirm its validity.According to her, the protons and neutrons are composed of even smaller particles - quarks.

Each nucleon consists of three quarks.T
hey have specific characteristics - "color" (has nothing to color in the traditional sense).This word to denote their charge.It quarks carry the strong interaction, exchanging between themselves special quanta - gluons (translated as the "glue").Communication between protons and neutrons in the nucleus is formed by the residual strong interaction, called nuclear.It is not among the fundamental.

strong interaction

This is one of the four fundamental forces in nature.It is only at distances of the order femtometra.The strong interaction is thousands of times more powerful than electromagnetic.It is sometimes jokingly referred to as a knight with short arms.

quarks are not found in the free state, and so much related to each other that they can not be divided.At least, modern science has no idea how this can be done.The phenomenon of strong interaction is that by increasing the distance between the quark, the force between them increases several times.On the contrary, the approach of the interaction force is much weaker.In contrast to the strong nuclear interaction strength decreases rapidly with increasing distance between the nucleons.

study of quark interactions involved in quantum chromodynamics.It examines the properties of the gluon field, as well as the characteristics of the quarks (strange, charm, color, etc.).In the standard model only quarks and gluons are capable of strong interactions.The theory of gravity is allowed and leptons.