free fluorine molecule consists of two atoms and has an anomalously low dissociation energy in a series of halogen.In nature fluoro occurs as a stable nuclide.At normal pressure, it forms two crystal modifications.
Fluorine is the most electronegative element, it is found in nature only in a bound state.Its main minerals - fluorspar (fluorite), but fluorine is found in many minerals: apatite, mica, topaz, Hydrosilicates, ambligonita and bastnaesite.
fluorine content in the earth's crust is 0.065% (by weight).This chemical element is present in small amounts in living organisms, for example, in the human body contains about 2.6 g fluorine, and 2.5 g of - in the bones.
Fluoride is involved in the formation of bones and teeth, as well as the activation of certain enzymes.The c
ollection rate of fluoride in our bodies - 2.5-3.5 mg per day, and the lack of an overabundance of fluoride causes various diseases.
Fluoride is a strong oxidant, many fluorination reactions of simple substances, halides and oxides are irreversible, they are accompanied by the release of large amounts of heat.All of the chemicals except neon, helium, and argon, to form stable fluorides.
Some reactions involving fluorine spontaneously initiated at room temperature and have a chain and often occur with an explosion or flash in the stream - with the appearance of the flame.Many metal salts and oxides are more resistant to fluorine than the metals themselves.Less susceptible to the action of noble gases, some types of glass carbon, sapphire and diamond.
free fluorine production includes mining and enrichment of fluorite ores, concentrates decomposition under the action of sulfuric acid, separation, purification and then anhydrous hydrogen fluoride.In the last stage of its electrolytic decomposition is carried out in three ways - low temperature, high temperature or medium temperature.
Fluorine is highly toxic, it irritates the mucous membranes and skin, causing conjunctivitis, dermatitis and pulmonary edema.Contact with them causes burns, and chronic poisoning its compounds cause fluorosis.
free fluorine is a reactant in the production of graphite fluoride, noble gases, metals, nitrogen, and various fluoro-organic derivatives.Atomic fluorine is used in chemical lasers.