- physics textbook, pencil and paper.
Read the tutorial on the physics of what constitutes the dielectric.As is known, dielectric materials do not conduct electricity, however, with these substances it is the phenomenon of electrostatic voltage.
In order to understand the phenomenon of electrostatic discharge, remember situations in which you observed this phenomenon.A common example of this effect is when a person does not assume, for example, wool sweater, and his body run through electrical discharges.Sparks of these discharges is especially visible in the dark.
Draw on paper two media separated by a line, which is the interface between these media, like the one portrayed as the two environments in the study of the refraction of light.Each environment will be some insulator.
Draw in each environment schematically atoms dielectric.In order to do this, remember what feature of the internal structure of dielectrics.Unlike metals, dielectrics have no free charge able to move freely in the space of the substance.Electrons are located on the latest energy levels of the atom dielectric tightly bound to the nucleus and can not participate in conductivity.However, it is worth noting that the last level of the electrons bound to the nucleus is much weaker than others.Place the figure on its electrons orbit the last level of atoms close to the interface.
Imagine now that the two media, drawn by you, are moved relative to each other.In this situation, first, in contact with each other, electrons come last layers in each medium.Since these electrons are bound less tightly to the core than the other, some of them pass from one medium to another.This leads to the fact that the medium is collected in one electronegative potential and the other - electropositive.
Please note that the "throwing of" electrons from one medium to another in one direction.This is due to the fact that the two dielectric media have a different structure of the outer shell of the atom.In order to be able to observe the electrostatic voltage is necessary that one of the atoms dielectrics have a much larger number of electrons at the outermost orbit, the atoms other than dielectric.Then the transfer of electrons will be unidirectional.