Science, attributed to the "naturalĀ»



basic list of such disciplines as follows - physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, geography and geology.

But over time some of the data area in contact sciences, which formed as a result of the following disciplines - geophysics, astrophysics, biochemistry, chemical physics, geochemistry, meteorology and many others.Over time, they ceased to be side and already perceived as quite independent.

interesting fact is that this list is not usually included mathematics, relevance, along with the logic to the category of "formal" disciplines, the methodology of which is radically different from the category of "natural".

History of Science



According to the official history of the discipline, it appeared more than 3 thousand years ago, when the ancient philosophers have identified three different science - physics, biology and geography.Then, seemingly quite everyday and mundane things, and have given rise to other disciplines.For example, trade relations and sailing - geography and astronomy, and the improvement of technical conditions - physics and chemistry.

Later, in the late Middle Ages, dating back 14-15 centuries, scientists have attempted a thorough review of the ancient past performances and began to create so-called "new" natural sciences.By this time the true appearance of the basics of modern biology.

main reason for this revision of the existing picture of the world in the Middle Ages was an attempt to combine the teachings of Aristotle with Christianity.This attempt failed, causing the scientists were forced to abandon the Aristotelian dogma that the trigger was the emergence of ideas about the existence of the void, the infinity of nature, infinite space, imperfection of celestial bodies and the general potential of irrationality.

first theorist of natural sciences at the end of the 16 th century was an Englishman Francis Bacon, who led the theoretical justification of existing scientific methods in his work "New Organon".A further outstanding discoveries of Descartes and Isaac Newton, which were not built on a speculative assumption, and on the experimental knowledge, finally broke "umbilical cord" linking the world of science with ancient antiquity.The culmination of these changes in 1687 was the combined work of "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" publications Pascal, Braga, Leibniz, Kepler, Boyle, Brown, Hobbes, and many others.