Sera under normal conditions - solid yellow crystalline solid, insoluble in water, but readily soluble in carbon disulfide CS2 and some other organic solvents.There are three versions of this substance alllotropnye: rhombic - α-sulfur, monoclinic - β-sulfur and plastic - rubbery sulfur.Rhombic sulfur is more stable, and it is in this form free sulfur is found in nature.It consists of cyclic molecules S8, in which the atoms are connected by single covalent bonds.
Sulfur may be present in nature in the free state, and in the form of compounds.The most important compounds of sulfur - iron pyrites (pyrite) FeS2, chalcocite CuS, silver glitter Ag2S, galena PbS.Often, the sulfur is p
art of sulfates: gypsum CaSO4 ∙ 2H2O, Glauber's salt (mirabilite) Na2SO4 ∙ 10H2O, bitter (English) salt MgSO4 ∙ 7H2O, etc.It can detect sulfur in the composition of the oil, coal, in the proteins of plant and animal organisms.
elemental sulfur is smelted from rock in special devices - autoclaves.In the laboratory, a substance obtained by the incomplete combustion of hydrogen sulfide or by draining fluids sulfurous acid and hydrogen sulfide: 2H2S + O2 = 2H2O + 2S, H2SO3 + 2H2S = 3S ↓ + 3H2O.
By its chemical properties of sulfur - a typical active nonmetal.It interacts with many simple and complex compounds.In the reactions, it can be both oxidizing agent and a reducing agent (this depends on the properties of the reagent), as well as participate in autoxidation processes, self-healing (disproportionation).
The interaction with hydrogen, metals, some non-metals with lower electronegativity (carbon, phosphorus) sulfur exhibits the properties of the oxidant: H2 + S = H2S, 2Na + S = Na2S, Mg + S = MgS, 2Al+ 3S = Al2S3, C + 2S = CS2, 2P + 3S = P2S3.As the reducing agent, it reacts with oxygen, halogens, acids, oxidizers: S + O2 = SO2, S + Cl2 = SCl2, S + 3F2 = SF6, S + 2H2SO4 (conc.) = 3SO2 ↑ + 2H2O, S + 2HNO3 (dil.) = H2SO4 + 2NO ↑, S + 6HNO3 (conc.) = H2SO4 + 2H2O 6NO2 + ↑.
The disproportionation reactions (self-healing, auto-oxidation) with alkalis and sulfur exhibits the properties of an oxidizer and a reducing agent at the same time.These reactions take place on heating: 3S + 6NaOH = 2Na2S + Na2SO3 + 3H2O.
sulfur used for vulcanization of rubber, combating agricultural pests (wax moth), in the manufacture of gunpowder, matches, sulfuric acid, etc.In medicine, it cure skin diseases.