formation of public opinion carried out by the various channels of mass communication.Among them are formal (such as television, radio, press, online media) and informal (eg, rumors, gossip, misconceptions, myths).Today are becoming increasingly important electronic QMS, in particular, social networks, blogs, Twitter, Youtube and so on. A proven way to influence public opinion is to attract opinion leaders - people whose opinion is respected by the population, or acts as an expert.
Nowadays, the media are called to become the fifth power to control the actions of politicians and the public interest.But freedom of the media in practice faced with a whole range of problems.Thu
s, the State has the exclusive means of influencing public opinion, including - propaganda and censorship.It should be noted that these methods are not only the impact of the authoritarian state, but also those that consider themselves democratic rank.
Another way of shaping public opinion is a "spiral of silence".According to the developers of this theory, people are less likely to express its opinion, if there is to believe that he is in the minority.This is due to the tendency of many people to conformism, iethe passive acceptance of dominant opinions.It is believed that this is one of the most effective ways of dealing with the opposition.But concealment of the facts is often done in order to avoid mass panic in a crisis.
not always politicians use fair methods of influencing public opinion.For example, widely used method of "ordinary people".He was particularly fond of politics.This method is intended to manipulate public opinion to convince that a politician - one of them comes from the people, have in common with them the goals and understands their needs, despite the high post and rather big state.Most involve the participation of famous athletes and respected people in order to distribute them to the image directly on the political (party).Some of the favorite techniques included "the formation of an image of an external enemy."This method involves an attempt of politicians to write off their failures (for example, economic policy) on the machinations of external aggressors, which have the purpose to destabilize the situation in the country.
actively used in the formation of public opinion polls of the population.Manipulation of the surveys most often occur during the elections, when the citizens at the last moment can change their minds and vote for the candidate who enjoys the greatest support.That is why the results of opinion polls may not publish during the election period.