revolution as a kind of political process
can distinguish the following types of the political process: it is a revolution, reform and counter-revolution.Sometimes also separately allocate an armed coup.
revolution - a radical transformation of the social order.As a result, a new political system.Revolution always occurs on a certain social base and is the result of deep divisions in society and social stratification.The effect of the political elite does not accept the change and does not take any steps to improve the lives of the people.
Another sign of the revolution is that they are not carried out above, the current political elites.The initiative comes from the people.As a result of the Revolution and the elite ruling classes losing their authoritative position.
Revolution differs from the armed revolution in th
at it is accompanied by a change in the social system.For example, the monarchy to a republic.Armed revolution is usually carried out in the interests of political elites.According to this approach, the so-called Revolution in Ukraine, Georgia is a revolution indeed, but were only armed revolution.
revolution is accompanied by a change of the social system.For example, a change of the monarchy to the republic.The revolution does not imply a change of the social system.That is, if the "revolution" in Ukraine (2004), Georgia, somewhere else - this is the terminology of political upheavals.
But the February Revolution of 1917 in the Russian Empire - a revolution, because the country has moved from a monarchy to a republic.Revolution implies a new qualitative leap in the development of society.
Revolution often accompanied by severe costs to society.In particular, the economic crisis and the loss of human life, the internal struggle between the opposition.So often resulting revolutionary transformation of society is significantly different from the original ideal model.This creates a group of people who are seeking to overthrow the ruling elite and the restoration of the old order.The reverse process is called a counter-revolution.With its success comes the restoration of the old order.The difference of the revolution is that they do not lead to the reconstruction of the situation that existed before the last revolution.
reforms - the gradual transformation of the socio-political order.Their success depends on the timeliness of, the availability of public support and achieve social consensus with regard to their contents.Reforms may be radical and evolutionary.Their essential difference from the revolutionary changes - the sequence and phasing action.The difference from the reforms of the revolution is the fact that it does not affect the basic foundations of society.
revolution - a radical transformation in any area of human activity.Originally, the term was used in astrology.Sometimes the term revolution is wrongly used to refer to phenomena that do not have signs of revolution.For example, the "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" in China, 1966-1976 gg., Which is essentially a campaign to eliminate political opponents.Then, as the period of "perestroika", which led to the revolutionary transformation of the social system, called reforms.
Revolution are political and social.Social lead to changes in the social order, whereas political change one political regime to another.
Marxism distinguishes bourgeois and socialist revolutions.The first involves the replacement of feudalism by capitalism.Examples thereof include the French Revolution, the English Revolution of the 17th century, the War of Independence of the American colonies.If the outcome of the bourgeois revolution are changes only in the economic sphere, but in the political and can not be eradicated feudalism, it becomes the sources of bourgeois-democratic revolutions.For example, the 1905 revolution, the revolution of 1924-27 in China's revolution of 1848 and 1871 in France.
Socialist revolution aims at the transition from capitalism to socialism.Some researchers refer to those the October Revolution of 1919, the revolution in Eastern Europe of the 1940s, the Cuban Revolution.But even among the Marxists there are those who deny their socialist character.
separate class act of national liberation revolution, under which the country freed from colonial rule.For example, the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 Iraqi revolution of 1958 war of independence in Latin America in the 19th century.
In recent history, there is such kind of transformation as the "Velvet Revolution."They result in 1989-1991 was the liquidation of the Soviet political regime in Eastern Europe and Mongolia.On the one hand, they fully met the criteria of the revolution, becauseled to a change in the political system.However, they are often carried out under the supervision of existing elites that only strengthened their positions.