taiga zone of Eurasia
In general, the climate of the taiga can be described as continental.In winter and off-season cold Arctic air penetrates far enough to the south and causes a sharp drop in temperature.The European part of the zone subjected to the influence of cyclonic Atlantic, growing in the summer, so the climate is milder.The level of summer temperature varies from + 10 ° C in the northern regions to + 20 ° C in the south.
average temperature in the European part of taiga in winte
r is -10 ... -16 ° C, snow depth - 50-60 cm, duration of occurrence - from 100-120 to 180 days.In the east - Yakut taiga region of the normal winter temperature of about -35 ... -45 ° C.The duration of snow cover in the north-eastern and northern Central Siberia is 200-240 days, its capacity - 90-100 cm. The climate of Central Siberia can be described as continental, and the Far East - as the monsoon.In general, for boreal forests are more important summer temperatures.
Maximum precipitation falls throughout July and August.The European taiga zone of their annual rate of 600-700 mm, in central Siberia - 350-400 mm, in the Far East - 600-900 mm.
rainfall exceeds evaporation rate.Thus, throughout the taiga zone holds sufficient and excessive moisture, which contributes to waterlogging areas, the abundance of surface water and washes the nature of the soil.
It originated many major lowland rivers of the country - the Volga, Kama, North Dvina, Vyatka, Onega, Stony and Lower Tunguska, Yenisei, Ob, Lena et al., And focused a significant amount of lakes and marshes.
for taiga zone is characterized by different types of forest soils - podzolic, bog-podzolic, taiga-permafrost.The predominant type of vegetation is light coniferous and coniferous forests.In the western region of the main forest-forming species is the European spruce.Beyond the Urals, in the forests of Siberia thaw Siberian spruce, fir, larch and most valuable tree dark taiga - the Siberian cedar.To the east of the Yenisei River is the dominant breed Daurian larch.Taiga region of Primorye and the Amur basin is characterized by a wide species composition.On the whole territory of the taiga zone, mostly on sandy soils, spread pine forests.Chance to join pine hardwoods - alder, aspen, birch.
heterogeneity of the fauna of the taiga zone.The species composition of animals living in the European part, greater than in the Siberian region.In the western regions of the taiga live elk, brown bear, wolverine, lynx, squirrel, hare, grouse, hazel grouse, black grouse, etc.To the east of the Yenisei appear sable, capercaillie, musk deer, grouse, etc., Is a typical Siberian species.In the rivers and lakes of Western Siberia rich in many waterfowl.
Taiga Zone America
Eurasian taiga forests continues in North America in Canada and the United States.Climate American taiga are not experienced in the past glaciations, softer than in Eurasia.This is especially noticeable on the Pacific coast.
in North America grows 40 species of spruce trees, 30 species of fir, 80 species of pine trees.For American boreal forests nature a significant proportion of deciduous trees.Eastern and northern regions of the US resemble Eurasian taiga coniferous forests.Particularly well represented here, and the Canadian black spruce and larch American.From small-leaved trees grow here American aspen, paper birch, alder and various breeds of willow.In addition, the balsam fir are found here, and jack pine, and from a purely American breeds - Canadian hemlock and eastern arborvitae.
Taiga western region of North America is similar to that of the Far Eastern forests.In the forests of Alaska is dominated by larch.Alaska and the US are similar to dahurica larch growing in Siberia.The fauna of the American taiga, in general, similar to the Eurasian taiga fauna.