The basic properties of the photon

photon is a massless particle and can only exist in a vacuum.Also, it has no electrical properties, that is, its charge is zero.Depending on the context, there is a review of different interpretations descriptions of the photon.Classical physics (electrodynamics) presents him as an electromagnetic wave having a circular polarization.Also exhibits the properties of photon particles.This dual representation of him is called wave-particle duality.On the other hand, quantum electrodynamics describes a particle of a photon as a gauge boson, allowing to form the electromagnetic interaction.

among all the particles of the universe has the maximum number of photons.Spin (intrinsic mechanical angular momentum) of a photon is equal to one.Also, the pho
ton can only be in two quantum states, one of which has a projection of the spin on a certain direction, to -1, and the other - equal to one.This quantum properties of photons reflected in its classical representation as a transverse electromagnetic wave.The rest mass of the photon is zero, which means its velocity of propagation equal to the speed of light.

particle photon does not have electrical properties (charge) and is sufficiently stable, that is, the photon is not able to spontaneously decay in a vacuum.This particle is emitted in many natural processes, such as the motion of an electric charge to the acceleration and power jumps of the atomic nucleus or an atom from one state to another.It is also capable of absorbing photons in the reverse process.

Wave-particle duality of the photon

Wave-particle duality inherent photon appears in many physical experiments.Photon particles are involved in the wave of such processes as diffraction and interference, when the size of the obstacles (slits, diaphragms) are comparable to the size of the particle itself.This is especially noticeable in the bright diffraction experiments with single photons on a single slot.Also point and corpuscular photons manifests itself in the processes of absorption and emission of objects whose dimensions are much smaller than the wavelength of the photon.But on the other hand, the idea of ​​a photon as a particle is also not complete, since it is refuted by correlation experiments based on entangled states of elementary particles.Therefore it agreed to consider a photon particle, in particular, and as a wave.