lithosphere is called the outer shell of the Earth from a relatively hard material: it is the earth's crust and the upper layer of the mantle.The term "lithosphere" was coined by the American scientist barrel in 1916, but at the time this notion meant only solid rocks that make up Earth's crust - a softer mantle is not considered part of the shell.Later in the lithosphere including the upper portions of the planet layer (the width of up to several tens of kilometers) they border on the so-called asthenosphere, which is characterized by low viscosity, high temperature at which the substance is already beginning to melt.

lithosphere thickness varies in different parts of the Earth: the oceans under its layer can be from five kilometers thick - un
der the deepest places, and the coast has increased to 100 kilometers.Lithosphere beneath the continent extends up to two hundred kilometers in depth.

In the past it was thought that the lithosphere has a monolithic structure and broken into pieces.But this assumption has long denied - the shell of the Earth consists of several plates, which move along the plastic mantle and interact.


As the name implies, the hydrosphere - a shell of the Earth, consisting of water, or more precisely, it's all water on the planet's surface and under the Earth: oceans, seas, rivers and lakes, and groundwater.Ice and water in a gaseous or vapor state are also part of the aqueous shell.The hydrosphere consists of more than half a billion cubic kilometers of water.

Water covers 70% of the Earth's surface, most of it falls on the world's oceans - almost 98%.Total half percent is given ice at the poles, and the rest - rivers, lakes, reservoirs, underground water.Fresh water also is only 0.3% of the hydrosphere.

hydrosphere owes its existence to the lithosphere: plates of it at an early stage of development of the earth stood water vapor and underground water.And we, in turn, owe their origin to the water shell of the planet: that life began in the ocean, and it is impossible without water.

Biosphere Biosphere - is not a separate shell of the Earth, and of the other "spheres", inhabited by living beings.The organisms living on the surface of the planet - in the lithosphere, in the oceans, seas and other waters - the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere that surrounds the Earth.All areas where the common life and the waste products of living things, are called biosphere.

Biosphere initially originated in the hydrosphere - water, but eventually spread to other areas.This is one of the most volatile and unstable layers of the Earth: human activities, natural disasters and space effects could seriously damage the biosphere.