thermonuclear reaction belongs to the category of nuclear, but unlike the latter, it is a process of education, rather than destruction.
To date, science has developed two variants of fusion - the explosive thermonuclear fusion and controlled thermonuclear fusion.

Coulomb barrier or why people have not blown up

Atomic nuclei are positively charged.This means that when they approach begins to act repulsive force, which is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the nuclei.However, at a certain distance, which is equal to 0.000 000 000 001 cm, starts to operate a strong interaction, leading to a merger of atomic nuclei.

As a result, an enormous amount of energy is released.That distance that prevents the fusion of nuclei called the Coulomb barrier or potential barrier.
A condition in which it occurs - high temperature, about 1 billion degrees Celsius.Thus, any substance is converted into plasma.The main materials for the fusion reaction are deuterium and tritium.

explosive fusion

Such a method of thermonuclear reaction originated much earlier managed and was first used in the hydrogen bomb.The main ingredient is exploding lithium deuteride.

bomb consists of a trigger - a plutonium charge amplifier and the container with thermonuclear fuel.First blows to trigger the emission of soft X-ray pulse.The shell of the second stage together with a plastic filler absorbs the radiation, it is heated to a high temperature plasma which is at high pressure.

gets jet thrust, which compresses the volume of the second stage, reducing the internuclear distance of thousands of times.This fusion reaction occurs.The final stage is a nuclear explosion plutonium rod, which runs the nuclear reaction.Lithium deuteride reacts with neutrons to form tritium.

Controlled thermonuclear fusion

Controlled thermonuclear fusion is possible because the used special types of reactors.The fuel is deuterium, tritium, isotopes of helium, lithium, boron-11.

1) reactor based on the creation of the quasi-stationary system in which the plasma is confined by magnetic field.
2) The reactor is based on the pulse system.In these reactors, a small target containing deuterium and tritium, briefly heated high-powered laser, or a stream of particles.