Initially under the "University" referred to a small group of adult students and teachers of different sciences, gathered to protect their own interests and the exchange of scientific knowledge.Moreover, the permanent premises for such activities they would not normally have had and they just rented a purse.Only when the problem of a good education authorities have paid attention, homeless universities have begun to turn into stationary.And they not only held lectures and exams, but also perform a variety of scientific studies.
From the Apennines to the Hanlin
In the first millennium were born just three schools, which is quite possible to name the oldest universities.The date of birth of one of the three created, based on data drawn from ancient Chinese sources, under the name "Hanlin Academy," says VIII century.Second University was located on the Eurasian border, in Constantinople, and appeared in the 848th year.Around the same time we created the University of Salerno in Italy.
However, it university status Salerno was much later, after almost 400 years.But it lasted much longer, until 1861 - in contrast to Constantinople, closed after the city was captured by the Turks.These colleges and universities are the first in Europe.However, worthy of the podium and a few other continental institutions.For example, in 1088 formed the University of Bologna may rightly be proud of what works today.
Medieval Europe was a global division of the western and eastern parts, rather than the present.With regard to this system of education.Accordingly, the fact that the first East European University, called "Ostroh Academy" appeared only in 1576, is not particularly surprising.Geographically, it is located in the Rivne region of modern Ukraine, which was then, however, the map is not yet applied.Based on this, the first university to be established in the USSR, it is necessary to recognize the Gladzor in Armenia to teach students from 1282 by 1338.A surviving - Vilnius University, he appeared three years after Ostrog.
The Russian university under the ordinal number 1 became a reality in 1724-m.Naturally, it has created by Peter I, and it happened in St. Petersburg.Formally, Petersburg Academic University, is a division of the Academy of Sciences, he worked only until 1766 th.But later, it was "resuscitated" - in the form of school, teacher training college, and finally have the modern State University, considers itself the successor of Peter.The first university formally spelled out in the current Russian territory was "Albertina."It was founded in Konigsberg in 1544, and worked in the capital of East Prussia, almost before the arrival of Soviet troops and the urgent evacuation in January '45 in Germany.
Needless to say, there are universities and there is not one of Eurasia, but also on other continents - Australia, North and South America, Africa.The oldest of these scientists believe the Moroccan "Al-Karaouine," he appeared in 859.In 1551 th the monks of the Dominican Order in the capital, formed the Peruvian University of San Marcos.After another 85 years in the North American Cambridge was founded Harvard College, and later dorosshy to university.Finally, in 1850 a private university and a green continent, Australians have created a university in Sydney.