This period is called "archaic period", which lasted from 3120 till 2649 BC.At that time, Egypt was divided into two parts - north and south, so we were kings, with two crowns: one blue, the other - the red.
Presumably, the first kings, Ger, Semerhet, Kaa, appeared in the middle of Egypt, in the middle of the eighth nome (the field), the ancient city of Abydos, who later became, the center of worship of the god of the dead - Osiris.The brightest representative of this era was Ger - successful conqueror, conquered Nubia.
Egyptians of this era were very punctual people.Almost every day they made measurements of the water of the Nile River, made their own calendar fo
r the convenience of calculation of days, weeks, months, years.The years are determined by a significant event for the country.
Army at that time was already, but in a very early stage of development.Egyptians began to chronicle, for it hired specially trained people, they were called scribes.They were writing on papyrus and clay tablets, as well as on the walls of the royal temples and pyramids later.In this era of actively preached polytheism, ie polytheism.First carry out the construction of the pyramids, it was very expensive and require a large amount of human resources.
this era called the 'classic', which lasted from 2040 by 1645 BC.Egyptians actively studied and developed new technologies.For example, the smelting of weapons and tools made of bronze, the first chariot, learned to make glass, improved agriculture, have made great strides in mathematics, medicine and astronomy.Also, developing literature, but, unfortunately, it has survived only a few works: "History of Sinuhe," "Conversation disillusioned with his soul" and others.
In this era raiding Asiatic tribes, the Hyksos, which caused significant damage to civilizationEgypt.It was an active construction of the pyramids.The Pharaohs of Dynasty Sesostris simplified build their pyramids, using old materials of previous pyramids and temples.No longer needed strong army of workers, and this construction costs decreased significantly.
most striking Pharaoh of this era is Ramses II.It can rightly be considered a great ruler because of his reforms and campaigns in neighboring lands.Thanks to him, the empire expanded and built new cities in the conquered lands.
In this era was the peak of the power of ancient Egypt.New Kingdom, according to ancient chronicles, lasted from 1550 until 1069 BC.The country is a leader in the Eastern Mediterranean.The Egyptians master the new technologies, developing an active foreign trade with other countries, at the expense of the Egyptian nobility became richer and more powerful, become more actively develop culture and art.
Then began the great building.Since the Pharaoh Tutomosa I, in the valley of the kings of the Pharaohs built more truly luxurious tomb.It was built huge temples of Karnak and Luxor.Art and literature were on the rise and had a variety of genres.The main masterpiece is considered the "Book of the Dead."This book is a huge source of information about the development of ploteizma in ancient Egypt.
era of decline and Hellenism
The era lasted from 1000 by 332 BC.Egypt pursued a crisis after crisis.Soon, Egypt became part of the Persian Empire.Then Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great, the era of Hellenism.After the collapse of the empire of Alexander the Great, Egypt was mainly associated economically and politically with Greece and later the Roman Empire.As a result, Egypt became part of the Roman Empire.
In the current state of Egypt - a Muslim country, and at the same time in Egypt today, many Christian and Jewish communities, says mnogostaradalnoy history of this country.
- history of ancient Egypt
- Encyclopedia Krugosvet