country duties


feudal relations are characterized by, inter alia, and numerous levies and tribute, which the lords levied peasants living on their lands.This service, which was originally paid in kind - products of peasant labor - was a dues.Charge its Russian feudal lords - princes and boyars - began in the IX century, it is, in fact, is a tribute that farmers pay for protection.Subsequently, the XIII century dues acquires binding and its size is fixed.

With the emergence of commodity-money relations among the peasants an opportunity to exchange the fruits of their labor for money and start paying d
ues in kind and in cash.It is a kind of tax, and it began to charge in accordance with the economic situation of a peasant farming as their stratification is becoming more pronounced.

During the reign of Ivan the Terrible serfdom as such has not yet been - farmers can once a year, in late November, to move from one landlord to another, if the former than they are not satisfied.When Boris Godunov in 1607 this order was abolished and peasants actually turned fortress - attached to a particular landlord.Serfdom was the impetus for the formation of the landlords and legalized extortion from farmers, increasing them - now they were forced not only to pay rents to the landlords, but also to fulfill serfdom, ieto work for his master for free.

abolition of serfdom and dues


In the first half of the XIX century with the emergence and development of the industry begins the collapse of the feudal system, which accelerated the peasant revolts and uprisings.The situation of the peasants became more severe, the number of days that they had to work on serfdom, constantly increases, and the amount of dues which already was paid mostly in cash.

reforms undertaken by Emperor Alexander II in 1861 led to the abolition of serfdom and the revision of the relationship between the landowners and peasants, who could now lease land and work on themselves.Natural dues was abolished along with serfdom, but the money temporarily obligated peasants paid until 1883.This year, all quit-rent payments have been replaced by the redemption - an analogue of modern taxes.