critical realism as a trend in philosophy
In the second half of the XIX century in European and American philosophy appeared for, which subsequently became known as critical realism.His followers recognize that reality exists independent of consciousness.At the same time, they thought it was important to distinguish between the object of knowledge, and the image that this object is created in the human mind. Critical realism, though has been uneven over, but it was one of the strongest philosophical trends, opposing neo-Hegelianism and pragmatism.
In the United States as an independent philosophical direction of critical realism took shape completely to the top of the 20-
ies of the last century, when a number of philosophers have published a software collection of essays devoted to the problems of this trend in science.Central to the views of supporters of the critical areas of the process has the knowledge, in particular perception.Critical realists justify the possibility of knowing the objects of the physical world that the human experience is focused on the perception of the outside world.
Various representatives of critical realism in their own interpreted the nature of the objects, which aims human knowledge.These theoretical differences soon led to the collapse of the philosophical currents.Some scientists have made their particular theories, which upholds the principle of "personal" (J. Pratt) or "physical" (R. Sellers) realism.
critical realism in art and literature
of philosophical currents, known as critical realism, contributed to the emergence of the same name artistic direction.It aims to portray truthfully as possible everyday daily life.Typical images of critical realism in art and literature began to suffer from people who eke out a bleak existence.Many writers and artists have turned to topical subjects, which drew from real life.
basis of critical realism in art was the denunciation of the existing reality and criticism of many different manifestations of social injustice.At the center of his works of painters and artistic expression raise questions of morality.Vividly and fully critical realism is reflected in the works of Russian artists of the mid XIX century, which include, for example, V. Perov. His works of art have tried to expose the negative nature of contemporary reality and to awaken in people a sense of compassion for the disadvantaged.
In Russian literature the most outstanding representatives of critical realism became NVGogol and MESaltykov-Shchedrin.These authors have tried to faithfully describe the life in all forms, and are not afraid to focus on the social problems of reality.In the works of critical realists reflected the vices of society, immorality and injustice.This proactive approach is critical given the opportunity not only to describe the shortcomings of life, but also influence society.