Background and the beginning of military operations
geopolitical location of Afghanistan (between South and Central Asia and the Middle East), at first, made him one of the most ancient centers of trade, and secondly, will inevitably attract the state to participate in a challenging economic-political relations.
In 1978, after the April Revolution of Afghanistan was proclaimed Democratic Republic.The government headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki was on the path of radical reform, which led to mass protests.Thus, the country's civil war began.As a result, Nur Muhammad Taraki was killed.In place of it he came to power, Hafizullah Amin, did not inspire confidence from the Soviet government, whereby the Soviet troops were introduced into Afghanistan to support the communist government from power and remove Hafizullah Amin.
course of the war
confrontation against the Soviet Union began to force the mujahideen who have received arms and financial support from the US and China.Clashes of Soviet soldiers with the Mujahideen began in 1979.The following year, clashes occurred as the (Kunar offensive battles have Shaesta operation "Shock"), and numerous accidents (tragedy Salang) and the anti-government demonstrations.
Over the next four years amid clashes and performances begins to form an international commission for the peaceful settlement of the Afghan conflict, which claimed the lives of about 14.5 thousand. Soviet soldiers and hundreds of thousands of civilians - the exact number is still unknown whether, or classified.It destroyed more than 100 aircraft, 350 helicopters, 150 tanks.Resistance and losses since 1986 have led to the decision of the USSR to a plan of gradual withdrawal, which finally happened in 1989.
However, this civil war has not ended.In the northern part of the country was formed by the Northern Alliance, and in 1992, after the entry of rebels in Kabul, Afghanistan, Democratic Republic ceased to exist.Next - the struggle for power, the massive destruction of cultural and historical monuments, and in the south - the spread of the movement "Taliban", which has declared itself as a defender of the people's interests exclusively.Since 1996, under the control of the "Taliban" it was already a large part of the country.
In 2002, the regime has fallen, and in the course of operation "Enduring Freedom", ousting the Taliban in mountainous areas and allowing to declare the modern Republic of Afghanistan with the new constitution, adopted in 2004, and President Hamid Karzai, elected in 2009.