- Periodic Table.
to determine electronegativity there are quite a few methods.For example, there is a so-called "Mulliken scale," named after an American scientist, who considered as the average electronegativity of the binding energy of the valence electrons.
There are also "Pauling scale", which received its name from the chemist, as the basis for the concept of "electronegativity" binding energy in the formation of complex substances from simple starting materials.Electronegativity values on this scale lie in the range from 0.7 (francium al
kali metal) to 4.0 (gas-halogeno fluoro).
In "Allred-Rochow scale" degree of electronegativity depends on the electrostatic force acting on the outer electron.
How to determine which element is more electronegative and which - at least, with only a periodic table?It's very easy.Remember the rule: the higher and to the right in the table is a chemical element, the more electronegative properties it has.Accordingly, the lower left is an element, the more electropositive.
absolute record for elektootritsatelnosti - halogen fluoride.This element is so reactive that it has long been the unofficial nickname of "all bite."Pauling believed his electronegativity is 4.0.According to the latest updated data, it is equal to 3.98.Several inferior fluorine familiar oxygen - it is approximately equal to 3.44 electronegativity.Then comes the gas-halogen chlorine.Slightly less electronegative nitrogen.And so on.Most nonmetallic electronegativity value approximately equal to or slightly higher than 2.Accordingly, the most active - alkali and alkaline earth - metals, this value ranges from 0.7 (France) to 1.57 (beryllium).
Remember that the electronegativity of an atom element is not constant.It depends on many factors such as the degree of oxidation valence.
- as a member of the group electronegativity