According to the explanatory dictionary of foreign words, "avalanche" - masses of snow, snow boulders, rushing down from the mountains.The word is borrowed from German (lawine).The German word «lawine» is derived from the Latin.labīna, which means "collapse".

Avalanches pose a great danger to people, causing casualties.More often than not fall under the avalanche climbers, those who engage in skiing and snowboarding.

Avalanche as a natural phenomenon

Avalanches are a danger in mountain areas both in Russia and around the world.There are four factors lavinoobrazuyuschih: snow, terrain, weather and vegetation.

Snow.With each new snow accumulated snow layer, layer by layer.In layers througho
ut the winter changed structure and strength.When the impact on the snowpack is more grip the snow, there is a risk of disequilibrium and avalanches.

Relief.The terrain are important slope, the configuration of the slope, its exposure of the slope and roughness.It should be borne in mind that travel along the valley floor can also be dangerous.In such cases, there is a risk to be captured by an avalanche that came down from the upper slopes.Avalanches can occur not only in distinct foci.

weather.Most avalanches occur during or immediately after a snowfall.This is due to the fact that the formed snow layer can not withstand the new snow in a significant amount.The faster the snow accumulates, the sooner the snow cover reacts to the extra weight.Also on the snow cover affects temperature.The warmer the snow, the faster the change in snow cover.

vegetation.A good tool for determining avalanche danger is vegetation.For example, a dense coniferous forest is a sign of lack of avalanches.When the avalanche comes down, it kills trees and other vegetation, and affect the change of plant species.

Classification of avalanches

There are several classifications of avalanches.One of the best known is the classification of GKTushino.(1949).It allocated 7 types of avalanches Snow avalanches and movement:
• Kosovo - landslides across the entire surface of the slope.
• Trough avalanche - an avalanche moves on natural base troughs, gully, etc.
• Jumping avalanches - in the way of such a blockage, when faced with an avalanche that bounce and fly part of the way.

Thus each of those kinds of avalanches above also depends on the snow conditions.For each type of avalanches seen three states:
• From dry snow, dust avalanches - as it moves the debris layer of snow can collapse and form a dust cloud.
• From dry snow, snowy range, such an avalanche occur when the surface layer of snow formed ice crust.
• From wet and wet snow avalanche "from the point" characterized guttate start.
• Sverhmokrye avalanche.In addition to the classification
GKTushino existing classifications for VNAkkuratova by VVDziuba and international morphological classification of avalanches.
In Europe, the system of classification levels of the danger of avalanches, according to which the risk of avalanches can be from one to five:
• Level 1 - low risk
• Level 2 - Limited
• Level 3 - medium
• Level 4 - High
•Level 5 - very high.

How deystovat when in the zone of danger of avalanches

When avalanches.If the avalanche breaks high, you need as quickly as possible to get away from the path of an avalanche or hide behind the rock ledge.In no case can not hide behind the young trees.If it is impossible to get away from the avalanche, you must get rid of things, take a horizontal position, squeeze your knees to the stomach and stay in the direction of the avalanche.

during an avalanche.Close your nose and mouth glove or scarf to keep moving, as if floating in the avalanche and trying to stay on the surface and move to the edge, asspeed on the edge below.When the avalanche has stopped, it is necessary to create a space around the face and chest, in this case it will be possible to breathe.If possible, it is to move towards the top.In no case should not cry.Snow will absorb all the sounds and power and oxygen will be less.You can not fall asleep becausein a dream there is a risk to freeze and die.

avalanche.Please inform about avalanches in the nearest village, so you can start searching for victims.