It took a lot of time before scientists agreed that all substances consist of molecules.Eventually even been able to establish that the molecules are composed of atoms.Then the question arose, what it consists of an atom.Atom includes the core and some of the electrons orbiting the nuclei.

nucleus of an atom of hydrogen


Rutherford, who was one of the pioneers of this branch of physics, and all his life he worked on the development of this direction, it is assumed that in the core of any chemical element is the hydrogen nucleus, which was able to be confirmed by the experiments.

These experiments require considerable training, and conducting experiments, scientists and students often sacrificed their health.The experiment was conducted as follows: using alpha radiation is the bom
bardment of the nitrogen atoms.As a result of the atomic nuclei of nitrogen extorted various particles that are recorded on a photosensitive film.Due to the weak glow Rutherford had eight hours to sit in a room with no light to fixed light eyes are better tracks.

These experiments Rutherford was able to knock on the trail to determine what an atom of any substance there is hydrogen and oxygen atoms.


Particle Proton proton Rutherford discovered in 1919 during the experiment that proved the existence of any chemical element the nucleus of the hydrogen atom.Proton is essentially an electron but with a positive sign, it balances the number of electrons in such a situation is called a neutral atom or unloaded.

proton name comes from the word "protos", which translates from the Greek as the first.Initially, this particle would call the Baron from the Greek word "Baros" which means heavy.But in the end it was decided that the "Proton" best describes all the qualities of this item.It is important to remember that the mass of the proton about 1840 times greater than the mass of the electron.


Neutron Neutron is also one of the elements of the atom.This item Chadwick discovered after a series of bombings carried out over the nucleus of the beryllium atom.With this bombardment flying elements that did not respond to an electric field, so they eventually called neutrons.