occurs naturally seven isotopes of mercury, all of them are stable.Mercury is one of the rare elements.She is involved in the metabolic processes of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.There are more than 30 of its minerals, the most important of them - the cinnabar.Minerals mercury can be found in the form of isomorphic impurities in the lead-zinc ore, quartz, carbonate and mica.
in the earth's crust mercury is in the form of dispersed, precipitated from hot underground water, it forms mercury ore.Its migration in aqueous solution and in the gaseous state is important in geochemistry.The biosphere is absorbed only a small amount of mercury, primarily in clay and silt.
Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature.Solid mercury are colorless, it crystallizes in the orthorhombic system.
Mercury has a low reactivity, it can keep its luster indefinitely at room temperature in dry air.Oxygen does not oxidize it at normal temperature, but electron bombardment, or ultra-violet irradiation oxidation processes are accelerated.
covering the oxide film in the damp air, the mercury begins to oxidize with oxygen at a temperature of 300 ° C.With many metals Mercury forms alloys - amalgam.Many of its volatile compounds are decomposed in the light and are easily reduced even weak agents.
Get mercury pyrometallurgical method, burning ore in the fluidized bed furnace, as well as in the muffle and tube.Wherein mercury in the form of cinnabar, reduced to the metal.It was removed from the reaction zone in the vapor state together with the exhaust gases and then purified in electrostatic suspended particles and condensed.
Metallic mercury is very toxic, and its vapors are extremely toxic compounds, they accumulate in the body.Absorbing lung tissue, toxic substances into the blood, where they are subjected to enzymatic oxidation to ions bind to the protein molecules, and many enzymes, which leads to metabolic abnormalities and neurotoxicity.When the mercury is necessary to exclude it from entering the body through the respiratory tract or the skin.
Mercury is used in the manufacture of cathodes for electrochemical production of chlorine and caustic alkalis.It is the main component for the creation of gas-discharge light sources - mercury and fluorescent lamps.It is used for the manufacture of instrumentation - thermometers, manometers and barometers, as well as to determine the purity and concentration of fluorine in the gas.