Tip 1: How to liquefy natural gas

mined from the bowels of the earth natural gas , before we get into the apartment, enterprises and boiler performs a long way, sometimes constituting the many thousands of kilometers.To facilitate the transport and subsequent storage of natural gas subjected to artificial liquefied by cooling it to a temperature of -160 degrees C.
In view of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) - is a colorless liquid with nocolor and smell, to 75-90% consisting of methane and has a significant advantage: in the liquid state it is non-flammable, non-toxic and is not aggressive, it is essential for transportation.LNG liquefaction process step has the character, where each new stage compression is 5-12 times, followed by cooling, and the transition to the next stage.LNG becomes liquid at the end of the last stage of compression.
gas liquefaction and - very energy-intensive process that takes up to a quarter of all the energy contained in a given volume of gas well.To liquefy gas and used several types of plants - a turbo-jet, throttle, turbo-expander and others.Sometimes liquefaction is produced by the combined scheme, which includes elements of the above cycles.As practice shows, the greater simplicity and reliability vary throttle setting.
development of modern technologies ensures that the liquefaction of natural gas and became possible in the conditions of specialized mini-mills.This is especially true for Russia - a country with a developed network of main gas oprovodov, aided by the presence of numerous large and small oraspredelitelnyh gas stations and automobile gas onapolnitelnyh stations.It was on the basis of their very profitable to build a mini-LNG plants.
installation for the production of liquefied gas and consists of a cleaning of the water vapor and carbon dioxide liquefaction unit, control systems and automation, cryogenic storage equipment for storage and LNG storage and compressor equipment.When deciding where to install a mini-plant should be taken into account characteristics of the equipment, availability of communications - electricity, water, telephone and gas a marketing line, the presence of a safe distance from the object, expensive and driveways.

Tip 2: How and why liquefied gases

Any gas can be converted into a liquid when it is compressed and strongly cooled.For the first time a laboratory experiment was carried out with ammonia in 1779.The famous scientist Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction, in the XIX century, also held a number of successful experiments on liquefied gases.And in the early twentieth century with the development of low-temperature technology it has become possible to transfer a liquid state completely all the gases known to science.
How and why is liquefied gases

Liquefied gases are widely used in various fields of science and technology.For example, liquid ammonia is used as a refrigerant for storage of perishable products.Liquid hydrogen is used as a component of rocket fuel.Liquefied propane and butane is used as a motor fuel.Examples can be endless.Moreover, liquefaction of gases is economically advantageous during transportation over long distances.

thus transported the most valuable minerals - natural gas.Until now the most common method of transmission is realized by the manufacturer to the consumer via piping.Gas is pumped through the pipes of large diameter high pressure (about 75 atmospheres).When the gas is gradually loses kinetic energy and is heated, so it is necessary from time to time to cool it while increasing pressure.This is done at the compressor stations.It is easy to understand that the construction and maintenance of the pipeline is costly.However, the transport of gas in a relatively small distance is the cheapest way.

If the gas is to be transported over long distances, it is much more advantageous to use special vessels - tankers, gas carriers.From the place of gas production to the nearest suitable place at the seaside stretch the pipeline, and build on the shore gas terminal.There's much gas is compressed and cooled into a liquid state and pumped into tanker isothermal containers (at temperatures of about -150oS).

This mode of transportation has a number of advantages over the pipeline.Firstly, one such tanker for a voyage may carry a huge amount of gas, because the density of the substance in the liquid state, is much higher.Second, the main cost comes not transportation, and loading and unloading of the product.Third, storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas is much safer than compressed.There is no doubt that the share of natural gas transported in liquefied form, will steadily increase as compared with the gas supply.