abstraction - it is a process based on abstraction from some of the properties of the subject in the course of his knowledge to deeply explore it a certain direction.Examples of the results of abstraction can cause curvature, color, beauty, and so on.Abstraction has several goals.For example, it is aimed at finding common.At the same time the attention will fall from their signs that distinguish one object from another.Attention will be focused solely on the general, that is, between these objects.Another goal is systematization and generalization.As you can see, this is different from the previous target, as attention focused on the differences that allow you to share objects into groups.In addition, the abstraction may be aimed at the creation of the sample and the clarity of the w


In this case, the knowledge displayed in the sign symbolically, that is, they take on the form of conditional values ​​and formulas.Using special symbols - the required method of how man reflects reality.The formalization is part of the formal logic.


analogy is the conclusion of the similarity between two objects on some basis, which is based on identity characteristics.The knowledge obtained after consideration of a particular object is transferred to another, less studied and accessible facility.However, the analogy does not provide reliable knowledge.If the reasoning by analogy truthfully, it does not give reason to believe that the conclusion is true.

Case Modeling

object is studied using abstract models.The knowledge gained is transferred to an investigational original.The model makes it possible to make a reasonable and a more complete forecast, and optimize the movement to the result.However, it needs to have been identified trends, historical experiences and expertise.The model and the original must have a certain similarity, as regards functions and physical characteristics.This similarity allows to transfer the information obtained as a result of the model study of the original.

mental simulation

In this case, the mental images.Besides mental simulation and there is a computer simulation of a landmark.


In this case, the objects are certain concepts that do not actually exist, but have a prototype.An example would be an ideal gas, ball, and so on.The ideal object can be described as an idea that is expressed in the sign system of scientific artificial language is the basis of scientific theory.