In 1844, Professor Karl-Ernst Karlovich Klaus, who worked at Kazan University, discovered ruthenium during the study piece coins - old ruble.Of course, the new element had to pick a name that borrowed from the word «Ruthenia» (translated from the Latin - Russian).
Ruthenium is a transition metal and is considered a very rare scattering (ie not having the ability to concentrate in the crust) element.Every year the world produces only about 12 tons of ruthenium is made not more than 20 tons.In the ranking of the most common metals in the world, he stands on the 74th.Obtained this metal usually ores from other metals of the platinum group, and most of the mineral pentlandite.The percentage of ruthenium in platinum ores mined to a large extent depends on the locat
ion of the mine.
Ruthenium is sometimes used in platinum alloys.Most often it is used to create a wear resistant coating.Ruthenium alloy with titanium has high anti-corrosion properties.At a temperature of 264 ° C and doped with molybdenum and it becomes superconducting.
Ruthenium is the only element of the 8 groups in the outer shell of which no two electrons.In nature, there are seven stable isotopes of ruthenium, as it has 34 radioisotope.The half-life of the radioactive isotope most stable ruthenium is only 373 days.Most other ruthenium radioisotopes have half-lives less than 5 minutes.
Ruthenium does not tarnish under normal temperature conditions.
Like other members of the platinum group, ruthenium is also obtained as a result of obtaining copper and nickel.Noble metals and metals from the platinum group which include ruthenium, collected in the bottom of the container during the electrolytic deposition of nickel and copper.Ruthenium may also be removed from the radioactive waste such as uranium-235.
Currently ruthenium investigated for use in the technology of solar energy.It is also studying the possibility of application of the metal magnetic components in creating computer hard drives.
Chemical data ruthenium density = 12.45 g / cm3, bp = 4077 ° C, mp = 2334 ° C (for refractoriness is one of the leaders, along with rhenium, osmium, tungsten, tantalum), atomic radius = 0,134nm, the most characteristic oxidation level 3, 4, 6, 8.