theory of quarks



quark theory was developed to describe the interaction of particles.It is important to note that in the free state of quarks in nature does not come across as the quark, strictly speaking, it does not in itself is a part.This method of configuration of the electromagnetic wave in the particle, and the particle typically includes far more than one such wave.The charge of a quark is a third charge of an electron, and its scale is 0.5 * 10 ^ -19 (minus 10 degrees of the nineteenth), is less than the size of a proton is about 20 thousand. Times.Hadrons (which include protons and neutrons) is also made up of quarks.

at the moment are six types of quarks usually say "flavors".In addition, quark also has another feature which is important for distinguishing the type, the
color.Obviously, this abstract division, this quark, of course, has no color, odor.But this theory of quarks calibration is very convenient.Each type corresponds to a quark-antiquark - ie, the "particle", which quantum numbers opposite.Quantum numbers are used to describe the properties of the quark.

history of how quarks get their name, enough fun.Gell-Mann, the scientist who first suggested that hadrons consist of special particles, it is a word borrowed from the novel by James Joyce's "Finnegans Wake," which contains the words: "Three quarks for Mr. Brand!".

quark theory in physics can be called one of the most poetic.Here the history of the names and characteristics of color and flavor, and the types of quarks themselves: true, charming, enchanted, strange quark ... Each type is characterized by charge and mass.

role of quarks in physics



On the basis of quarks is a strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions.When strong interactions can change the color of a quark, but not flavor.Weak interactions change the flavor but not the color.

in strong interactions separately taken a quark can not get away from the rest of quarks at any appreciable distance, which is why in the free form of the impossible to observe.This phenomenon is called confinement.But hadrons - "colorless" combination of quarks - can already fly apart from each other.

whether quarks are real?



As for confinement see individual quarks is not possible, laymen often ask: "Is it possible to do quarks, if we can not observe them?Is it not a mathematical abstraction? ยป

reasons quark theory of reality few:

- All hadrons, despite their numbers, have a very small number of degrees of freedom.Initially, the theory describing quarks these free parameters.
- quark model appeared before became known to many of hadron particles, but they all fit perfectly into it.
- quark model assumed some of the consequences, which were then validated experimentally.For example, in hadron colliders it was possible "knock out" quarks of proton collisions at high energy, and the results of these processes were observed in the form of jets.If the proton were indivisible particles, no jets would not have existed.

course, despite the experimental evidence, the quark model physicists still leaves a lot of questions.