Basic nutrient four: it is carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen.Because of their atoms built all organic matter of the cells, and oxygen and hydrogen are also included in the water - the most important inorganic compounds to living organisms.
The share of oxygen 75% cell mass, carbon - 15% hydrogen - 8% and nitrogen - 3%.In general, these four main elements constitute about 98% of cell mass.
of the elements that make up the organic molecules can be called as phosphorus and sulfur.They refer to macroelements.Other major elements such as calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chlorine, are present in cells in the form of ions.
Calcium ions regulate a number of cellular processes, including muscle contraction and blood clotting proteins.From the insoluble calc
ium salts are formed bones and teeth, shells of mollusks, the cell walls of certain plants.
magnesium cations are necessary for normal functioning of mitochondria - "power plants" of the cells.These ions are also maintain the integrity and functioning of the ribosome consists of chlorophyll of plants.
sodium and potassium ions act together they create a buffer environment, regulate the osmotic pressure in the cell, provide the transmission of nerve impulses and normalize heart rhythm.Chlorine anions involved in creating salt medium (in animals), and sometimes part of the organic molecules.
Other elements - microelements ultramicroelements - contained in the cell in a very small amount of copper, iron, manganese, zinc, cobalt, boron, chromium, fluorine, aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, selenium, iodine.However, a small percentage of their body does not characterize the degree of relevance and importance.So, for example, iron is part of hemoglobin - an oxygen carrier, iodine - in the thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyronine), copper - in the enzymes that accelerate the oxidation-reduction processes.
The composition of coenzymes (non-protein part of) the vast majority of enzymes include zinc ions, molybdenum, cobalt and manganese.The silicon content is large in the cartilage and ligaments of vertebrates.Fluorine is a part of the bone and tooth enamel, and boron is important for plant growth.
Some organisms can accumulate in their cells certain elements.For example, seaweed fucus, kelp and phyllophora accumulate iodine, duckweed - radium, buttercups - lithium, etc.