As is known, the equivalent of a substance or a equivalent called particle (real or imaginary), which should be equivalent to an electron or hydrogen cation in redox or ion-exchange reactions, respectively, by connectingwith one of the hydrogen atoms or its substitution release.Thus, for example, a chemical reaction HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H2O will be the equivalent of actual particle - ion Na +, and the reaction 2HCl + Zn (OH) 2 + 2H2O = ZnCl2 - conditional particle Zn (OH) 2.
In addition, currently, the term "equivalent material" often imply an equivalent quantity of the substance or the same amount of substance equivalents.Underneath all this is to understand t
he number of moles of a substance, which in this reaction is equivalent to one mole of hydrogen cations.
Evaluate the equivalent reaction can not resorting to its compounds with hydrogen atoms.This means that the equivalent of the substance can be determined by knowing the composition of the compound material with the other chemical element, in which the value equivalent is already known.
Equivalents complex substances can be found, on the basis of the law of equivalence, which was discovered by the German chemist I. Richter in 1792.The law states that all substances that come together in a chemical reaction, react in equivalent ways.This formulation can be expressed as the following: = m1E2 m2E1.
Thus equivalents of complex substances, according to the law of equivalents, and the above formula will be calculated as follows: Equivalent Oxide = (molar mass of oxide) / (Valency Element * The number of atoms of the elements) acid equivalent = (MolarWeight of Acids) / (basic acids); Equivalent Basis = (molar mass base) / (acid base).