philosophical roots of modernism at the turn of the centuries become the new ideological concepts, which are based on the principle of irrationalism, ierecognition of impotence of the human mind in the knowledge of the universe, the recognition of its "chaotic" start.This understanding is consistent with alarming human outlook of the era, a premonition of events close to the accident or the apocalypse.Generic term crisis, pessimism was called decadence.For a long time the concept of "modernism" and "decadence" is identified, however, this greatly simplifies the understanding of the meaning of these concepts.
Modernism as a new modern art as a
whole was opposed to the traditional art in the selection of topics for creative forms, means and methods of realization of reality.The ideas of absurdity and illogicality of the world penetrated into different kinds of creativity and change the overall picture of the role of the artist, who could see the world only subjectively.Modernists were themselves the creators of a new reality and a new art, which was responsible spirit of the times.
Cultural Space of the modern age includes a plurality of separate areas, which were different in their importance and influence on the development of art in general: the symbolism, existentialism, expressionism, futurism, cubism, imagism, surrealism, and so on.d.Common to these principles were denying academic culture, art traditions of the past era and as a result, the rejection of the traditional language and an active search for new methods in the image of the world and man.Sometimes these experiments led to a completely meaningless forms of supply of creative material, such as "arcane" language created cubofuturists which essentially destroyed the fabric of words of text, or a complete rejection of the principles of linear phenomena play in the painting.
Conditionally era of modernism can be divided into several stages.Early Modernism, took shape in the currents of symbolism acmeism, futurism in 10 years of the twentieth century, characterized by a special power of negation of the traditional, outrageous and extreme extravagance of art.A vivid illustration is the leader of the Moscow Symbolists monostich Bryusov "On cover your pale legs", which has become a concentrated expression of the modernist formal experiments.
During the First World War in European literature and painting emerged within Dada, has become the embodiment of the very absurdity of life, and denying the rights and art in general.Dada formed the most important techniques of modernist art: "dismemberment" of reality on the unfinished fragments, "kaleidoscopic" random chaotic events and their connection.
In the 20-30s there was one of the most significant trends in the art of modernism - surrealism.Theorist current André Breton declared totally rebellious nature of surrealism against the foundations of life, morality and humanity.From the depths of this direction "left" Louis Aragon, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali.
In the years after World War II modernism embodied in the direction of "theater of the absurd," schools "new novel", "pop art" in the kinetic art, etc.In 60-70 years, the term 'postmodernism', bringing together the new phenomena in the art of this era, and spread to all the radical processes of life, including feminist and anti-racist movement.
There is another definition of modernism as a complex set of ideological and aesthetic phenomena, including not only the avant-garde movements, but also the creativity of outstanding artists of our time, "stepped framework" aesthetic views and techniques of modernist schools.This definition makes it possible to put in a number of names of Proust, Joyce D., A. White, K. Balmont, Jean Anouilh, Jean Cocteau, Kafka, Blok, Osip Mandelstam and other famous figures of the era of creativemodernism.