Climatic features of the North Pole
Geographic North Pole is in the Arctic at a distance of 1370 km from Cape Chelyuskin, the northernmost point of the Eurasian continent.At this point, the depth of the Arctic Ocean is about 4080 m, and its surface is covered with drifting ice thickness of about 3 m.
air temperature at the North Pole in winter varies from -43oS to -26oS on average - about -34oS.In the summer, from June to August, the average temperature is kept at around 0 ° C.As the salty ocean water has a lower freezing point than fresh water, in such a warm climate the ice begin to melt.Since the end of March to the end of September the sun over the North Pole, does not go.The remaining six months of the region is in total darkness.
What is the climate at the
Geographic South Pole is located on the continent of Antarctica in the Antarctic and South American distant from Cape Horn at 3734 km.At this point, the thickness of the ice is 2700 m, and the height above sea level - about 2830 m.
From June to August, which are winter months in the southern hemisphere, the temperature at the South Pole remains stable at around -65 ° C.In spring and autumn is warm - about -45oS summer the thermometer shows -25 ° C.At this point, the sun also shines continuously for half a year (only from late September to late March), and the same time hidden behind the horizon. lowest temperature, which was registered at the South Pole is -82,8oS, and the highest - -13,6oS.
What factors affect the temperature difference between the poles
both polar regions receive much less solar energy than the tropics and mid-latitudes.The sun does not rise at the poles above the horizon for more than 23.5 degrees, and most of the sunlight is reflected from the white surface.All the temperature at the South Pole on average 30 ° C lower than in the North.
This temperature difference is primarily due to the fact that the South Pole is at the heart of the continental land high above sea level, while the North Pole is situated in the middle of the ocean at sea level.With increasing altitude the temperature decreases.More than 2.5 km of the South Pole makes colder than the North. Antarctica - the highest continent on earth.
important role played by the ability of seawater to act as an insulator, absorbing the sun's heat from the atmosphere in the summer and warming the cold air in the winter.Ocean currents and strong winds led to the movement of the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean.This movement causes the formation of large cracks, allowing heat to penetrate into the ocean environment.At the South Pole there is no effective heat reservoir.Underneath the ice cover, which is colder than the ocean water and the continental land contribute to a colder climate than at the opposite pole.