first chlorine in 1774 studied the Swede Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who described the isolation of this element in the interaction of pyrolusite with hydrochloric acid.Then the chemist noted a peculiar characteristic smell of chlorine, which, according to Mr. Scheel, was like a flavor of aqua regia, and had the ability to actively engage with gold and vermilion, having, to all the above, more and bleaching properties.
then already Lavoisier and Berthollet, have studied the oxygen theory, proposed a theory according to which the open Scheel substance is an oxide of a hypothetical element Muria.However, the latter has not been isolated, and chemists, as a result of their experiments could decompose to sodium chloride, sodium and chlorine, causi
ng proved Cl elemental nature.
The natural environment is a chlorine gas yellow-green color with a distinct suffocating odor.The physical properties of chlorine also include boiling temperature at minus 34 degrees Celsius, while the melting point of minus 100 degrees, and the decomposition temperature at 1400 degrees Celsius.The heat capacity of chlorine - 34.94 J / mol K, its critical temperature - 144 degrees Celsius, and the critical pressure - 76 atm.
Chlorine is stable due to the valence contained one unpaired electron, and by virtue of the presence of unoccupied orbitals in an atom of one of the sub-levels, it can be different degrees of oxidation.Chemical element interacts with non-metals such as carbon, nitrogen, fluorine and oxygen, is known as its active response to bright light or intense heating with hydrogen according to the principle of radical mechanism.Chlorine is able to displace from bromine and iodine compounds with hydrogen and metals, and also has other properties.
Because of its very poisonous for light used in modern industry chlorine be stored exclusively in the so-called "tanks" or in steel cylinders under high pressure.The latter, in turn, made into a protective paint with the characteristic color and green stripes was washed as for frequent use in a cylinder formed explosive nitrogen trichloride.As regards the application of a chemical element, it is used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, as an integral component of bleaching agents (known white), in the formulation of medium-insecticides, which kill harmful insects, rodents.