Electrolytes Electrolytes are substances that can conduct electric current by its own dissociation into ions.Dissociation occurs in melts and solutions or electrolytes within themselves - due to the motion of the ions in the crystal lattice.
most striking examples of electrolytes are solutions of salts, acids and bases.In some cases, dissociation occurs in crystals - for example, in the case of zirconia or silver iodide.
If the decay occurs on the ions in the solution or melt, a process called electrolytic dissociation.In parallel with the dissociation of the reverse process occurs when the ions are attached to back in the molecule.If the environmental conditions are unchanged, in the melt or solution of the balance the
re - some of the material is dissociated into ions, and some - in the associated molecule.
Weak and strong electrolytes
electrolytes can be divided into two groups, depending on their ability to dissociate.By strong electrolytes include substances in which the degree of dissociation into ions of 100% (i.e., equal to one).Strong electrolytes are salts, bases and many acids (hydrochloric, hydrobromic, yodovodorodnaya, nitric).
weak electrolytes are substances which dissociate completely.The degree of dissociation is always less than unity.Thus, the higher the concentration of electrolyte in solution, the lower the degree of dissociation.It is a weak electrolyte water, some weak acids and bases.
between strong and weak electrolytes does not exist any clear boundary.Thus, one agent can exhibit properties of strong electrolyte in a solution and the properties of the weak - in another.
Electrolytes have a number of unique properties.If the electrolytic solution to put the electrodes at different potentials, the solution goes through an electric current.It is generally known that the solutions of substances have a higher boiling point and a lower freezing point than the solvent.But electrolyte solutions behave slightly differently - as compared with solutions of other substances, they have a higher boiling point and a low freezing point.Simply put, the electrolyte solution behaves as if it contains more molecules of the substance than it actually is.
Due to its special properties, the electrolytes are widely used in industry.With their help, the metals recovered, the gilding is applied, they are applied to the current source in the manufacture of capacitors.