It is known that particles having a certain charge, are attracted to each other or repel each other with a certain force.This physical phenomenon leads to a similar interaction between macroscopic bodies, if the total charge to offset them and has a certain value.The expression defining the magnitude of electrostatic forces, it has been empirically obtained in the experiment with the interaction of the two charged beads.We found a clear dependence of the force on the charge of samples, as well as the distance between them.
depending on the charge
So Coulomb force describes the interaction of charged objects.In order to describe the extent of their charge, it was introduced physical quantity called the charge and measured in a pendant.The need to introduce this value followed by From the
above experiment, in which the force of interaction of like-charged balls increased by adding them to the charge of the same sign.Thus, as is known, it has a certain amount of charge sign.Therefore it is necessary to clarify that the Coulomb force is directly proportional to the absolute value of the charge of the particles.Please note that, in speaking of the strength of the electrostatic interaction, mean the interaction of material particles.That is an expression of the Coulomb becomes unfair when considering the macroscopic bodies, the size and shape of which is far from a material point.
depending on the distance
Especially notable is the dependence of the electrostatic forces on the distance between the particles.As is known, the force is inversely proportional to the square of the Coulomb interparticle distance.Thus, the change in distance twice leads to a change in the power factor of four.This dependence is also characteristic of the gravitational force of attraction.Since the value of the distance is in the denominator for the force, it follows and the two extreme values.The first of these relates to the case of zero distance between the charges, then the power goes to infinity.This situation on the one hand, is not realizable, because the growth of force leads to the inability to contact the particles, but on the other hand, a similar effect is observed when forming atom.In fact, the approach of the subatomic particles of the same sign or annihilation takes place, if the electrons or vigorous synthesis and the formation of an atom, if protons, due to the appearance at some stage of rapprochement nuclear gravity.
depending on the environment
If the interaction of charged particles does not occur in a vacuum but in a continuous medium, the Coulomb force will also depend on the electrical properties of the medium.This phenomenon is expressed mathematically by the appearance of an additional factor of proportionality is called the dielectric constant of the medium.