Escape is one of the vegetative organs of plants.In the process of evolutionary adaptation to environmental conditions, may modify escape.There are elevated and underground shoots.Modifications occur in both species.
Modifications of the above-ground shoots
Above ground (air) escapes modified plants and presented in the form of antennae, spines, cladodes phylloclades.
If modification is not just an escape, but only leaves, the plant developed tendrils or thorns.Antennae - is an escape without leaves metameric structure.Antennae have flagelliform form and may be with the ramifications.Antennae are needed to the plant when the plant can not independently in an upright position.The plants have tendrils are: grapes, watermelon, pumpkin,
cucumber, melon.Barb - is shorter and lignified shoot with a sharp tip without leaves.The spines of the plant need for protective purposes.Spines have hawthorn, wild apple, wild pear, buckthorn.
cladodes - a side shoot, having flattened long green stems, which take over the function of the leaves.Cladodes capable of continued growth and performs photosynthesis.To perform photosynthesis cladodes located under the epidermis cells chlorophyll.The plants have cladodes are: Mühlenbeck ploskotsvetochnuyu, karmiheliyu south, cactus Decembrist, prickly pear.
phylloclades - a modified side shoots, which has limited growth and also acts as a sheet.Phylloclades capable of photosynthesis.The plants have phylloclades include butcher, brave, Phyllanthus.
Modifications underground shoots
Modified underground shoots perform several important functions for the plant, such as the supply of nutrients, the method of protection under adverse environmental conditions and the ability of vegetative reproduction.By a modified underground stems are: bulbs, tubers, rhizomes, caudex, an underground tuber and underground stolon.
Bulb is designed for nutrient storage and micropropagation.The bulb is a short shoot, the stem is available in the Donets.The plants have an onion include: onions, lily, tulip, daffodil, hyacinth.
corms - a modified escape, which has a thickened stem, protective cover and adventitious roots.The protective cover consists of dried leaves bases.Corms are plants such as gladiolus, Ixia, saffron crocus.
rhizome is a modified subterranean escape that has adventitious roots, scale-like leaves and buds.This water lily, Potbelly, iris.
caudex characteristic of perennial grasses and is a place of accumulation of nutrients.Caudex are: lupine, alfalfa.
underground stolons and underground tuber also perform zapasatelnuyu function.Underground stolon have potatoes and semidichka.