in nature is represented by four sulfur isotopes, also known for its numerous minerals.Among the sulfide minerals - stibnite, sphalerite, chalcocite, pyrite, covellite, cinnabar, galena, and many others.Sulphate Sulphur - anhydrite, barite, mirabilite, gypsum and others.
Sulfur is able to form cyclic molecules with different numbers of atoms, preferred cycle to 8 carbon atoms, more - less stable, especially the cycles of four or five atoms.Metastable modifications are distinguished by their color, it varies from orange to lemon yellow.
metastable pearl sulfur can be obtained by rapidly cooling the benzene solution of sulfur.Rubbery plastic sulfur obtained by
rapid cooling, for example by pouring the melt at a temperature of 190 ° C in cold water.
Many modifications characterized in that the melt prior to crystallization contains only one kind of molecule.Near the temperature of the board, it is a yellow mobile liquid, its structure mainly consists of cyclic molecules having the number of atoms of 8, and to a small extent - the molecule with a different number of atoms.
When the temperature reaches 187 ° C molten sulfur is virtually non-flowing, it is dark brown.If we continue to heat it further, the chain molecules are broken and shortened, the liquid becomes mobile again.
sulfur is produced from native ores, sulfur oxide reduction or oxidation of hydrogen sulphide.There are several methods of extraction of sulfur from ores, one of them - Geotechnological processing method, when applied to sulfur formation steam under pressure.During thermal processing method sublime sulfur in rotary kilns or smelted from ore crushing.
steam-water method is used for ores with high sulfur content, and the crushed ore is treated with steam in an autoclave.The flotation method is processing of metals and sulfur steam-extraction method.For the method of flocculation of sulfur concentrate is first sent to plavilnik and then in flocculator, wherein the high boiling point is added to the slurry liquid comprising water.Thereafter, the liquid sulfur is separated from the gangue floccules.
About half of the sulfur produced is used to produce sulfuric acid, a quarter - for the sulfides, and 10-15% - to fight crop pests.The sulfur used in the rubber industry as vulcanization agent, and in the production of dyes and artificial fibers.