Background


Like any scientific generalization of such a scale, cell theory has been formulated and is open at once: this event was preceded by a series of individual discoveries of different researchers.It all started with the fact that in 1665 the English naturalist R.Guku the first time it occurred to examine microscopically a thin slice of cork.Thus, he found that the plug has a honeycomb structure, and the first named these cells cells.The cell structure of the plant became interested in the Italian M. Malpighi (1675) and the Englishman N. Grew (1682), which paid special attention to the form and structure of their cell membranes.

significant contribution to the development of the cell theory, introduced Dutch naturalist Antonie van L
eeuwenhoek, who, moreover, was one of the founders of scientific microscopy.In 1674, he opened a single-celled organisms - bacteria, amoebae, ciliates.In addition, he was the first able to observe animal cells - sperm and blood erythrocytes.

Science does not stand still, microscopes improved by spending more microscopic studies.And in the early 1800s a French scientist S. Brissot-Mirbeau found out that the plant organisms forming the fabric, which, in turn, are composed of cells.He went further Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who spread the idea of ​​his colleagues not only in the plant, but also on animal organisms (1809).

early 19th century was also marked by attempts to study the internal structure of the cell.For example, in 1825 the Czech J. Purkinje, examining the bird's egg, opened the kernel.A little later, in the early 1830s, the English botanist Robert Brown found the nucleus in plant cells and determined its mandatory and the main component.

formulation of cell theory


Numerous observation, comparison and synthesis of the research results and its cell structure, allowed the German scientist Theodor Schwann in 1839 to formulate the cell theory.He showed that the cells of all living organisms, besides the cells of plants and animals have a basic similarity.

Then the cell theory developed by R. Virchow (1858) who suggested that the new cells are derived from primary maternal cells.Later, in 1874, Russian botanist IDChistyakov confirmed the assumption R.Virhova and opened mitosis - the process of cell division.

formulation of cell theory was the huge breakthrough in biology and became the foundation for the development of physiology, embryology and histology.This theory became conclusive evidence the unity of nature and created the basis for understanding life.It is possible to understand the process of individual development of living organisms and slightly lift the veil that hides the evolutionary relationships between them.

From the moment the first formulation of cell theory has been more than 170 years, during which time there have been new knowledge about vital functions, structure and development of cells, but the core of the theory is still relevant.