Moscow differed favorable geopolitical location, being at the crossroads of land and waterways.Because of this, it quickly turned into a major shopping center.From its raids in heavily defended growing around lush forests and the neighboring principality.
One of the factors that contributed to the rise of Moscow - a flexible policy of princes, their ability to use the weakness of the opponents against them.They acted according to the circumstances, pursuing their own benefit, even if morally dubious their actions were.Thus, in 1327, when a rebellion in Tver against tax collectors for the Horde, Prince Ivan Kalita (translated as "money bag") went with the Horde in the Tver punitive purposes.Instead, he got a label on the great reign, which is then passed t
o his eldest son Semyon Proud (reigned 1340-1353), and the youngest son of Ivan Kpasnomu (reigned 1353-1359).And with them the prerequisites for the formation of Moscow as a center of consolidation of Russian lands became more real.
After Tver uprising Golden Horde canceled collect tribute from the Russian land baskaks.Ivan Kalita was appointed Grand Duke and received judicial function and mediation to resolve disputes of small feudal princes.This has contributed to raising the status of Ivan Kalita and, accordingly, the Moscow principality.For a long time collecting tribute from subordinates Horde lands, he established permanent contact with them.To effectively collect tribute, required control over the economy, and for this was formed by the administrative apparatus.It served in the court nobles and most educated and literate inhabitants of Russian cities.Thus began the formation of the power structure of the capital.
Moscow princes after sends tribute to the Golden Horde, a part of the collected funds remained at home.These funds Kalita was able to buy the labels to reign at the Horde and thus included Galich, Uglich and Beloozero the Moscow principality.Presence of judicial functions in the Moscow princes, too, played a role in the centralization: specific rulers of neighboring small kingdoms could no longer directly access the Horde khans complaints and cases against the intrigues of Moscow reduced.On the contrary, they sought protection in Moscow, it is actually becoming vassals.Since there was a fairly high standard of living, many residents of neighboring principalities sought to move to Moscow, so its population grew.
When Ivan lll (the reign 1462-1505) were attached to the new land holdings Moscow: Yaroslavl, Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod, Perm, Rostov principality, Novgorod, Tver and Vyatka land.In 1476, Ivan lll refused to pay tribute disintegrated by the time the Horde, she did not dare to fight against the Russian because of its weakening.Moscow Prince Ivan lll in 1485 became known as the Emperor of all Russia.