Tip 1: Who are the Siamese twins

Their names were Chang and Eng.These brothers from Siam, located in present-day Thailand were literally attached to each other - their body is a unified whole.In honor of these two was given the name of congenital anomaly known as "Siamese twins."
often called Siamese twins conjoined twins, but the term is not quite correct.The bodies of these people are not fused in the womb, they are formed and developed in such a way initially.According to medical statistics, for every 200 000 births are one such case.However, more than half of these children are doomed to die in infancy, and most of all happens miscarriage, but about 25% survive.

look similar anomaly may differently.Gemini can be connected from the waist to the sternum, in the chest cage, back, are even cases when the United found themselves head.

What Why Siamese twins born

The reasons for the emergence of the birth of these people for a long time, scientists thought.For example, a surgeon FRENCH XVI century.A.Pare thought it was a result of
"the wrath of the Lord" or improper behavior during pregnancy: a woman wearing tight clothes, sitting incorrectly.Get close to the true reasons for the first time in the twentieth century could Held Brosheld.

This German researcher experimenting on embryos of frogs, one transplanting embryos of other particles.In most cases, they died, but some survived and turned into Siamese twins.This meant that in the cell array, which is formed by the division of the zygote, there is some organizer, who manages its self-organization.In humans, this process is referred to as gastrulation begins within 12 days after conception.

After experiments H.Brosheld took several decades of research to understand how the organizer.This clump of cells, located near the dividing embryo deep furrows.In 1994 genes isolated from the tissue of the host were identified signaling molecules.Thanks to them, the cells of the embryo in contact with this fabric receive the "team" that determine their further development.

total of seven molecules, and one of them - retinoic acid.How does it work, can be seen in this experiment: pull the tail of a tadpole and treat the wound retinoic acid.Instead of a tail will grow somewhat.If retinoic acid is too much, too, a human embryo arise unnecessary parts of the body until complete doubling.Excess another signal substance, called «N-sonic», leading to a doubling of the face.

Here and there are Siamese twins.The principle of "that which is hidden in a normal, apparently in pathology" has them most directly related.

Can I help Siamese twins

said life conjoined twins is hard - it means nothing to say.Until late the way such people was one - in the fair or circus circus arena.Who cares about their health, as well as other people with disabilities.But is it possible to give them a full human life, dividing surgically?

Alas, not always.It is impossible to divide the twins if they have a common heart, liver and other vital organs.But at the end of the XVII century.German doctor Koenig separated conjoined twins, connected only to the skin, fatty tissue and connective tissue.In 1888, France was able to divide the Indian girls and Raditsu Doditsu.One of the sisters was ill with tuberculosis, and surgery done for the sake of another.However, healthy sick sister survived only two years.

Sometimes the birth of conjoined twins raises complex moral issue: to save one of the children is possible only by sacrificing others.
Modern surgery splits even twins with conjoined heads, however, only a quarter of patients survive.Patients understand this and often said, agreeing to surgery: Better death than such a life!

Tip 2: The most famous conjoined twins

Siamese twins - a unique biological phenomenon.Two personality, often with one body for two, can learn to live a normal life and even marry.

Whence came the name "Siamese twins»

One of the first documented conjoined twins have become brothers Chang and Eng Bankers.They were born in 1811 in Thailand, then called Siam that.Hence the common name of this type of twins.Eng and Chang's case was not complicated - they have grown together only a small strip of skin at the breast, but then medicine is put into question their successful separation.By the way, at an early age, they almost killed - the King of Siam considered unusual twin harbinger of sorrow and ordered to execute them, but then changed his temper justice with mercy and allowed Chung Ang and join the circus.At the end of this career twins took to farming and were even married.
Many conjoined twins have been killed because he believes the machinations of the devil.

Blazek sisters - the most beautiful twins

sisters Rosa and Josefa Blazek were born in 1878.Their mother was terrified by the unusual appearance of the girls and refused to feed them for a week.But the baby survived, and the parents have decided to earn money with their help, showing unusual circus.Growing up, the sisters have become attractive young girls.They are beautifully dressed and made fine hair, learned to play the harp and violin, and even dancing with young people.The sisters were common bodies from the waist down, but that did not stop Rose to get married and even have a child.In fact, the baby was a common child nurses, and they took care of him in the queue.Preserved even pictures of Rosa and Josepha near the stroller.

Famous Russian twins

But the story of Masha and Dasha Krivoshlyapovyh not so rosy.They were born in 1950.Their mother, seeing girls, damaged psyche, and his father abandoned the twins.Throughout his adult life, Masha and Dasha have lived in different orphanages and homes for the disabled.Soviet scientists have studied the girls as experimental animals without making attempts to separate them.The sisters have grown together in the pelvic area, they had three legs, one of which was later removed, but Masha and Dasha learned to walk with crutches.Lived Krivoshlyapovy a small social benefit, because hopelessness Dasha addicted to alcoholism.In 2003, the sisters had died of a heart attack.
Now operation to separate the twins are successful in 65% of cases.

Abigail and Brittany Hensel - one body for two

Siamese twins Abigail and Brittany fully fused bodies, but they have two head and neck.These girls were born in 1990, and today feel great and are not going to be separated.Despite the fact that each sister controls only half of his body, the twins alone walk, swim and even drive a car.They studied in a regular school, graduate and find a job.Ebi and Britta get along well with each other and build big plans for the future.
  • about conjoined twins
  • About hirurgcheskih operation to separate Siamese twins