- - separating funnel;
- - filter paper;
- - funnel;
- - magnet.
The basis of the separation of mixtures are methods such as sedimentation, filtration, evaporation, or the use of a magnet.Moreover, for separating the components from each other methods may be used, either singly or several.
liquid-liquid, such as oil and water.For the separation of liquid-liquid mixtures ideal separating funnel.However, if there is none, it may be replaced by an ordinary plastic bottle in which the stopper insert a rubber tube with a clamp (suitable even hairpin).Pour butter mixture into the bottle with water, close the cap, turn the container and leave it for some time to de
fend.Water and oil have different density, so that each of the agents in a few minutes will take its "place", i.e. their separation occurs on two layers: the lower - water, and the upper - oil.Then substitute for hose container for collecting the resulting fractions.Remove the clamp and drain the bottom layer - the water, then close "valve."Place a container to collect the oil and perform the same manipulation.
solid-liquid substance , such as sand and water.In this case it can be used methods such as sedimentation and filtration.Prepare funnel and filter paper.If not available, then it can be replaced with blotting paper.Put the filter in a cone and insert the funnel.Before you start filtering first put the mixture on standing.Then pour the mixture in small portions into a funnel to yield the filtrate (water), purified from grains of sand.If necessary, the filtration process can be carried out several times.
solid from the solution, such as copper sulfate or salt can be isolated by evaporation.A solution of salt, place in a container that can be heated in a tribal spirit lamp, the burner (or burners).At reflux, water evaporates, and the container will be only salt crystals that can be easily assembled.
solid-solid, such as sand and iron filings (chips).In this case, you will need a conventional magnet.Pour the mixture onto the paper, hold it a magnet and iron filings immediately be attracted to it.On paper, there will be only a grain of sand.For the purity of the experiment, repeat the process several times.In order not to collect iron shavings to a magnet hands can resort to some tricks.Before magnet to attract dust, cover with a mixture of a sheet of paper.After this hold the magnet, which iron will be attracted even after the paper layer.Turn the paper, then carefully remove the magnet.
When the action required to comply with safety regulations, especially during a heat source.