Tip 1: How to identify the overhead

total costs that are associated with the creation of conditions for the implementation of various types of works or services are estimated to cost, that is overhead.Regulatory estimated value of the overhead normally reflect the necessary costs that are included in the price for the execution of works or services.Normalizing overhead indirectly by a percentage of payroll as a part of the direct costs.
you need
  • Counting with a calculator.
Guide
1
Countable value of overheads by counting all the cost items based on calculations of the contracting organization.Standards overheads are divided into 3 types: individual expenditure norms, enlarged the main types of standards and rules of construction by type of construction works.
2
Determination of individual standards is carried out by calculation of each article, the costs for the calculation of the mass organizations for specific analytical method in all respects and costs related to salary payments.To determine the value of construc
tion work performed by individual entrepreneurs under contract, the amount of expenditures recommended taking as a basis to calculate an individual rate, as well as taking payments for those cost items that are fully consistent with the actual conditions of work.
3
Enlarged standards for the main types of construction used for the development of investor estimates in preparation of documents for participation in the tender.
4
During the determination of the estimated cost of works and payment for the work already performed for businesses and organizations that use the simplified taxation system, should be excluded from the calculation of individual expenditure norms costs associated with the payment of the unified social tax.Admitted for use in local estimates consolidation ratios by types of construction and repair work at a rate of 0.7.
5
The application of standards in the estimates depend on methods of determining the cost of the work and the stage of project documentation.In the application of the cost of construction works in public and residential buildings, standard costs should be applied by a factor of 0.9.
6
Standards expenditure on repairs of industrial buildings are made in the amount determined for the construction work, but in order to determine the estimated cost of using standard costs by type, the reduction factor is not applicable.

Tip 2: How to determine steam consumption

for operational and commercial calculation of heat energy as well as to measure the flow steam in heating systems are widely used, vortex meters.They do a good function in plants used for research, it acts as a carrier of energy, saturated or superheated steam.The accuracy of determining energy consumption is largely determined by the proper installation of the counter and compliance measurement process.
How to determine the consumption of steam
you need
  • - vortex flow meter steam.
Guide
1
Make flow meter installation couple in accordance with the requirements set out in the technical documentation.If the pair condensate is present, include the scheme se couple torus and steam trap condensate.Flow Sensor couple embed in the area after the condensate separator.Perform electrical connection as elements of the counter.
2
In winter, the installation device is made after exposure counter-clockwise in the temperature conditions under which it is planned to exploit it.Remove original packaging only after such exposure.
3
Check the range of the output signals of the measuring sensor couple meters entered in the calculator.Make sure that the value of the supply voltage corresponds to the specifications of the device.
4
Guided by the technical documentation to the meter, check how well executed function of calculator.If necessary, enter the real-time adjustment.With the built-in keyboard make sequential shift mode of the calculator to make sure of serviceability of the block display.
5
If the audit revealed inconsistencies in the calculations from the keyboard, make the required changes to the correction range of sensors flow couple , temperature and pressure sensors, to the allowable range of the output signal.Now, the counter flow couple ready.
6
consumption data couple real-time read from the display device, identifies the accounting unit.In the operation of the counter periodically (at least once every three months) carry out the registration information on couple meters of the device on a removable media such as a USB device or memory card.
Note
Of all the programs organizational changes hardest businesses given the reduction of overheads.
Helpful Hint
Standards by type of construction works are used in the development stage of the estimated documents and payment for work already performed or services rendered.

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