main methods of sociological research are:

- survey;
- interviewing;
- expert interviews;
- mass survey;
- observation;
- experiment;
- content analysis;
- sociometry.

Questionnaire design and interviewing

In the first case, a survey carried out by filling out the form with questions prepared by the respondent, the second takes personal communication interviewers and respondents.The first option is preferable for a small number of simple questions when you need to know the opinion of a large number of people of different social groups.When interviewing you can get an objective individual portrait of a narrow group of people.

Expert and mass survey

expert survey conducted with the participation of specialists in the study area, which requires special knowledge to evaluate the objectivity of the information received.Mass survey produced anonymously and does not require special knowledge in data analysis.

sociological observation

This method involves the recording features of the observed object in a specific system in accordance with the objectives of the study.So we study the behavioral properties of a group of people or a social phenomenon.Observations (emotions, behavior, facial expressions, speech) are fixed to the pre-designed form, in a diary, and also by means of photo, video and audio recordings.


This method of data collection and analysis, in which the hypothesis is tested delivered the intervention of a researcher in the natural course of events.

Content analysis

a quantitative analysis of the resulting sociological information contained in the records, reports, letters and other documents, the accuracy is not in doubt.The essence of content analysis is to search for and use of such features of the document that would reflect the essential aspects of its content.For example, we study the frequency of the use of certain words or expressions.Using this method reduces the subjectivity of qualitative analysis, and provides a more realistic picture.


This study processes in small groups: school, student, family, work collectives and groups united by common interests (social movements, parties and clubs, etc.).The main condition - the objects of study must be in direct interaction with each other.In sociometry combine interviews with processing algorithms primary indicators and mathematical methods.