history of the Nobel Prize began in the late XIX century.In 1896, the famous Swedish industrialist died, "the king of weapons" Alfred Nobel.Famous Nobel, first of all, the fact that he had received more than 350 patents for his inventions.Including dynamite.By the way, several of his companies supplying weapons were in Russia and worked for the king's army.
Before his death, Alfred Nobel made his will, according to which part of his vast fortune - 31 million Swedish kronor - was supposed to go to the establishment of special prizes.They could pay only for outstanding achievements in various fields of science and c
ulture, brought benefit to all mankind, and not intended for weapons.
Identify Nobel laureates instructed four most respected scientific organizations in Sweden and Norway.Their capitals, Stockholm and Oslo, and is held annually awarded Nobel Prize and medal.Moreover, the Swedish side presents awards for his contribution to world literature, medicine and physiology, physics, chemistry and economics, and a Norwegian - the strengthening of world peace.The debut ceremony was held on the day of the fifth anniversary of the death of the founder of the prize fund - December 10, 1901 in Stockholm.
pass it without Russians.In particular, the Nobel Committee has found it impossible to reward the writer and philosopher Leo Tolstoy.The first winner, who had the attitude to Russia, two years later became a physicist and chemist Marie Sklodowska-Curie.Lived and worked in France, polka Sklodowska was born in Warsaw, geographically then part of the Russian Empire.Therefore, a child had her citizenship and then passport.
In 1903, Maria received the prize from the Nobel Committee for "outstanding achievements in the joint study of the phenomenon of radiation."The first is Russian in the list of honor, not only for the residence and citizenship, but by birth, featured prominent researcher Ivan Pavlov conditioned reflexes.The rationale for its premium received year after Sklodowska, was the wording "for his work on the physiology of digestion."
Soon there was a first, but not last refusal to go on stage the traditional place of awarding the Stockholm City Hall.From Award 1906 flatly refused, this time alone, though through an intermediary, a classic of Russian and world literature, Leo Tolstoy.The history of a word came almost 80 years at the time of Leo Tolstoy: "Money can bring only evil!".As a result, Prize for literature gave the Italian poet Carducci.
«full-fledged" citizens of Russia and the Soviet Union in the list of awardees committee is not very much - 20 people, who were the owners of 16 awards over the years.By the way, 20 times less than Americans.And all of our fellow citizens, with the exception of Ivan Pavlov and Nobel laureate, in 1906 in the field of physiology and medicine, biology and immunology of Ilya Mechnikov, hit him after the end of World War II.
biggest representation among the Soviet and Russian physicists - eleven people.In particular, in 1958, received the award Pavel Cherenkov, Igor Tamm and Ilya Frank.In 1962 he became the winner Lev Landau.Two years later the award-colleagues from Scandinavia proved Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov.And in 1978, he held the triumph of Peter Kapitza, the discoverer of fluidity of liquid helium.
in modern Russian history, a solemn speech on the stage of the town hall of the Swedish capital uttered Physics Zhores Alferov (2000), Alexei Abrikosov and Vitaly Ginzburg (2003), celebrated August 23, 1974 its only the 40th anniversary of Konstantin Novoselov(2010).It is known that the latter company at the awards ceremony was his teacher and colleague, a former citizen of the Soviet Union, and now the Dutchman Andre Geim.
newly minted British gentlemen Geim and Novoselov, born respectively in Nizhny Tagil and Sochi, invented the graphite - the material, which is a single-atom layer of carbon.By the way, another Soviet physicist, in 1975 awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, has appeared world-famous not only a scientist, one of those who created a hydrogen bomb, but a human rights activist and dissident Andrei Sakharov.
Prize for Literature awarded to three Soviet writers - to abandon it in 1958, Boris Pasternak (later it was transferred to his son), who refused, but later received another dissident - Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1970), as wellauthor of "Quiet Flows the Don" Mikhail Sholokhov (1965).By the way, Russian citizen at the time of the award in 1905 and was a well-known Polish writer Henryk Sienkiewicz.
In addition, honorary medals and millions of crowns went to the chemist Nikolay Semenov (1956), economist Leonid Kantorovich (1975) and winner of the 1990 Peace Prize, the only president of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev.Scandinavian scientists prestigious awards marked professional activity and a few Russians.Let all of them at one time left the country, becoming immigrants.
Among the latter, in particular, appear lived in France all stateless writer Ivan Bunin (1933), a microbiologist and biochemist Selman Waksman (1952), economists Simon Kuznets (1971), Wassily Leontief (1973)and Leonid Hurwicz (2007), politician Menachem Begin (1978), chemist Ilya Prigogine (1977), and the poet Joseph Brodsky (1987).