history ballpoint pen is not as simple as it may seem, and much older than officially documented.

Background



idea of ​​stylus ball running on pasty, oil-based inks, can be traced to the XVII century Holland ...!The sailors then "Mistress of the Seas" required writing unbreakable, do not shed, and that it would be possible to use in a storm while pitching.The Netherlands were probably the first-borns of the European industrial revolution.

However, the level of development of the then engineering and chemical technology is not allowed to create a suitable device for the needs of the practice.As marine chronometer to accurately determine longitude.Above him, he labored in vain Hans Christian Huygens, but surely, in principle, the idea was realized only in the XIX century
.

Then, when the accuracy of metalworking reached an acceptable value, and chemists can accurately develop the substance of complex composition, it has been patented and the principle of a ballpoint pen.The exact name, date, and country - 30 October 1888, John Loud, USA.

Laud right formulated the main highlight "ball": viscous forces and surface tension in a thick liquid will not let the ball while pressing his hand to rest against the top of his neck hole, bind and block the flow of ink.Loud as defined physico-chemical requirements for ink they should be thixotropic, i.e., should dissolve on the mechanical loads - friction pressure.Ball stylus will never dry up just when completing its thixotropic ink.

good example of a thixotropic substance - pine rosin.If a piece of it with the push of a finger to conduct, first felt the roughness like're on solid.But then the finger starts to slide as on wax or soap, but a piece is far from being heated up to the softening point.

Home



Further efforts inventors were more on ways to improve the composition of the ink.The first workable design suitable for mass production, created in 1938, who lived in Argentina, the Hungarian journalist Laszlo Biro (László József Bíró).In Argentina, the pens are still known as "Beer."However, the priority of the Anglo-Saxons dispute, referring to the US patent of June 10, 1943, issued by Milton Reynolds.

Reynolds did not seem aware of the Biro pen, and has developed a similar structure and the ink alone.He worked for the needs of the US Air Force and Britain.Their bomber armada of flying at high altitude, pressurized cabin did not yet exist, many hours pilots carried out in oxygen masks.Conventional pens under reduced atmospheric pressure, flowing and use crayons was uncomfortable.

In essence, the reason for the patent litigation here and there, "ball" Biro invented.But it looks unattractive that priority Biro was contested on the grounds that he was a citizen of the fascist Hungary and lived in a formally neutral, but secretly and actively assisted Hitler Argentina.The crimes of Nazism, of course, no one denies and does not detract from, but the technique, then they can not blame.

Next "ball" simplify and cheapen Marcel Bich (Marcel Bich) in France in 1953, he offered to perform the rod - a vial of ink - with thick walls, and use it as a handle body.So there were widespread still cheap disposable pens BIC, only the name of the inventor of writing in the English transcription.

pens a long time not be used in primary schools.They wrote they have not so good, plugging fibers from the paper, and the kids immediately started to write "balls" ever disrupted handwriting.

Modernity



last point improvement ballpoint experts put the Japanese company Ohto Co in 1963. They started well seamed, which housed the ball, do not round in cross-section, and in the form of three converging channels.The design of modern pen point of a ballpoint pen is shown in Fig.This pen can write on virtually any ink retaining material, and are not blocked even if it izrisoval large tuft of wool.

Unfortunately, the names of inventors are unknown: according to Japanese corporate rules all worked out in the company's intellectual property is owned by the company.Original inventor under threat of severe punishment can claim authorship of the work, even in a private conversation.

Improvements



In 1984, another Japanese firm, Sakura Color Products Corp., replace the oil ink on synthetic gel, increasing at the same time the diameter of the ball to 0.7 mm.So a rollerball pen, sister "ball."Roller can write virtually without pressure, even on glass, polished metal and wet cardboard packaging and ink trail clearer than from the "ball".

With the beginning of space flight astronauts faced with a problem: pens, including Ball, did not write in zero gravity, and graphite pencils were given chips and conductive dust.Soviet cosmonauts for a long time used wax crayons, US astronauts up to the flight to the moon - with special mechanical, $ 100 per piece for the then exchange rate.

However, in 1967 the businessman Paul Fisher has offered his NASA Zero Gravity Pen, or the Space Pen (pen weightlessness and cosmic pen).Ball it was made from tungsten carbide (for us it is known as a win).All stylus manufactured with high precision.Ampule ink (cartridge) is sealed, it is pressurized nitrogen 2.4 atm.Ink with a pronounced thixotropic, they are separated from the gas viscous movable stopper.

Development pen model AG7 Space Pen - one of the legends of NASA, the reason for his accusations and jokes about him.AG7 a cost of $ 1,000,000 ...!Although it has no prototype Fischer claims the astronauts did not call.Now available in a broad sell models cost from $ 6 to $ 100.To write anything in the temperature range from -30 to 120 degrees Celsius in air, in vacuo or under water.Guaranteed service life - 120 years.

So who did?



In the history of great inventions clear trend: as a rule, to name one particular inventor is not possible.Exceptions, such as rubber inventor Charles Goodyear, just random "buhnuvshego" sulfur crude rubber, are extremely rare.Experts in the majority of priority debates simply avoid.

Popov and Guglielmo Marconi, for example, in his correspondence priority issues are not covered, they discussed the problems of radio engineering.Only once in a public report, Marconi said, his English patent gives him the right to commercial use of radio in the UK as the world's first wireless message transmitted and received still Popov.

So with a ballpoint pen.The right thing would be to say it - the fruit of many years of collective creativity of the people who worked for the urgent needs of humanity.