Renowned scholar VANikonov was a huge dictionary of Russian surnames.The work of the scientist is a testament to how rich and diverse world of this category anthroponyms.

time of appearance of names



very first native names were residents of northern Italy, they appeared in their X-XI centuries.Then the active process of assigning people taluk captured France, England and Germany.The European population, mainly noble lords gradually acquires its own generic name.

In Russia, before the abolition of serfdom, many farmers did not have names, though already in the XVI century.law prescribed mandatory to obtain their princely and boyar families, then it spread to the nobility and the merchant class.Decree of the Senate in 1988, noted that having a certain name is the duty of every Russian.The final process of the formati
on of family naming already completed under the Soviet regime, in the thirties of the XX century.

as named individuals in Russia before the names



Before the advent of the names of the people in Russia were the only personal names, first non-canonical, that in the modern sense should be attributed to the nickname: for example, unexpectedly, Guba, Hare, Nenashev.Then, in the second half of the XVI century.replace the Slavic name came new recorded in calendars names of people canonized or made venerable figures of the church.Non-Christian names permanently out of use in Russia a century later.

To distinguish people began to think middle names, referring to his father (in our opinion, first name), for example, John Smith's son in the future - Ivan Petrovich.

the source of



owned land known received names, depending on the name of principalities held by them (Rostov, Tver, Vyazemsky), many boyar families comes from the nicknames (Lobanov, Golenishtchev), and later could meet double thatcombines and a nickname, and the name of inheritance.Among the first noble families were borrowed from other languages ​​such as Anna Akhmatova, Yusupov, Lermontov, Fonvizin.

names of representatives of the clergy often ends in matched and pointed to the place of arrival (Pokrovsky, Dubrovsky), but sometimes they just invent euphony.

peasant population throughout Russia began to receive names after the abolition of serfdom.But in the north of the Russian state, Novgorod lands they appeared before (remember the great scientist Lomonosov).The reason is that in these areas there was no serfdom.

Most of the peasants found their family naming, thanks to the creativity of officials, which the royal decree has been attributed to the entire population of Russian surnames.Typically, they are formed by the name of the father or grandfather.Many people came from nicknames (Malyshev, Smirnov), were related to the type of activity (Goncharov, Melnikov), or place of birth and residence.Become free serfs sometimes received the names of their former owners (usually with minor changes).It was not uncommon that the generic naming just invented savvy officials.

last "without last" people



in 20-40 years of XX century.in the northern territories of the Soviet Union it was still "without last".Getting the main document of identity of the citizen, the passport, the Chukchi, Evenk and Koryak become Ivanov, Petrov, Sidorov - thus show imagination Soviet officials, on whose shoulders fell the duty of "ofamilit" these peoples.