Hourglass - XI century
Hourglass allegedly invented the sailors in the XI century, asThis device was used to the XIV century, only vehicles for time.Hours complemented the magnetic compass and helped to navigate the ship.But the only sources, speaking about it - ship logs.And only in 1328 hourglass materialized on the canvases Ambrosio Lorenzetti.Since the XV century, this instrument gained popularity and was used on land is literally everywhere.It was the first accurate measuring time intervals.The ships were even special people who are responsible for the timely turning hours.
Blast Furnace - XII century
Middle Ages - is the real age of the iron.Knight's armor, weapons, domestic tools - began to mak
e a lot of metal.Fusible ore ceased to meet the requirements of medieval civilization.They were replaced by high-melting metals.A need for them had other furnace.Demand creates supply.And that was invented shtukofen - a prototype blast furnace.The first were built in Shtrii and the Czech Republic.Temperature therein was higher melting proceeded more slowly and evenly.The output is three grades of metal - iron, steel, malleable iron.The next step was blauofen - ancillary furnace, which was later upgraded to a blast furnace.
Points - XIII century
Glasses, without which it is not possible to imagine modern civilization were invented in the middle of the century.The earliest documented mention of them refers to 1268 and is owned by Roger Bacon.The first portrait, which appears a man with glasses - the work of an Italian monk Tommaso da Modena in 1352 g, showing Hugh Provence, to rewrite the manuscript.The man is seen round glasses.
mechanical watch (XIII v.)
Presumably, mechanical clocks were invented at the monastery to determine the exact time of the service, which summoned all the monks monastery bell.The first mechanical clocks were huge and were placed in the tower.They had only an hour hand.The oldest preserved to this day, are in the Cathedral of Salisbury (United Kingdom).They were created in 1386 Rouen clock in 1389 still have oiled machine and work.
Quarantine - XIV century
In the XIV century with the growth of maritime trade grew, and the plague.The realization that this terrible disease is delivered by the courts with the Levant, led to the introduction of warning measures in Venice, which were named quarantine from the Italian word «quaranta» - forty.Arriving ships were isolated for a period of 40 days, during which it was possible to find out whether the disease on board or not.Selection of the segment is in 40 days was due to the choice of the Gospel parable of the forty-day retreat of Christ in the desert.
in 1423 opened the first quarantine station - Lazaretto, on the island near Venice.This excluded the transfer of disease and its spread in the city.Quarantine System have adopted and other European countries.
printing press of Gutenberg - XV century
Paper and printing - the invention of China.But the Europeans in the XV century figured out how to create books quickly invented the mechanical printing press.The first mention of such a mechanism applies to litigation in Strasbourg, held in 1439 is credited with invention of the printing press by Johann Gutenberg one source, on the other, leaner, Lawrence Janson fire.The printing press has been designed based on the press for a paper.This mechanism can print up to 250 pages per hour.